“What Do Blind People See?” – Color Optical Illusions

Have you ever wondered how a blind person see? Do they live in a different kind of universe? What do they “actually” see? Well, we have an answer now. It is not an “actual” answer, but it is an explanatory answer which it could explain how a blind person sees.  We read two different articles that explain about blind people and the optical illusions of colors. Right down below are the two questions I answered in physics class of my comprehension from the article

 

  • What do blind people actually see?

 

Blind people actually do see the thing that is indescribable. It is this nothingness that they see. A “normal” human cannot explain this nothingness because nothingness that could be explained is “how it “looks” behind your head.” Nowadays, blind people can live their normal lives like us; it is just that fact that they do not have that one sense of vision. Mr. Wächter is the subject of the experiment of the article. He is a blind man who has put on a belt whose ability can release out the vibration, which it can tell Mr. Wächter any direction. But when the experiment was over, without the belt, Mr. Wächter can still feel some vibration known as, but he was lost. “He was experiencing the same thing you do when you try to look at what’s behind your head.”

 

  • Why colors can trick us?

 

Colors can trick us when our brain tries to perceive or figure out what is the object’s color. According to Wired’s explanation, when you are concentrating on the figuration of the object’s color, our brain will neglect the background colors and light around it. Colors are also tricky when it comes to your eyes need to subtract the lighting or background colors because it is not happening rapidly. As a well-known example, some people might see the dress in white and gold while others see it as blue and black. For the people who perceive the color in white and gold, you cannot just tell your eyes or brain to neglect the right background colors and lighting. Consequently, all of these theories or ideas have become an inspiration for many artists to create the art of optical illusions. Humans know what is the optical illusion, but it takes to make us realize that it is a trick from colors.

“Golden Trevally” Trip April 5th – 8th

Learning many different knots for the making the cluster.

This was the most exciting trip out of all the LMRT trip because finally, we were able to take the first official survey of our deployed artificial blocks from March. Again, we deploy the blocks with the cluster about 300 meters away from the island. For the previous trip, we were really hopeful to see the lives rehabilitate at our place which it had been destroyed by the trawling. Therefore, this trip, we were so happy to see the first result.

Final product: Cluster!

For this April trip, it was a shorter trip, but we were still involving in the same activities: making cluster, surveying the blocks, and cleaning up the beach. Specifically about surveying, my partner, Soliday and I were responsible for the invertebrate survey. While surveying, there was not many invertebrate organisms besides some different types of urchins, volutes, and shells. The sea bed was entirely covered with silt; the water turbidity was bad. But when we arrived at our blocks, there were a lot of different sized fish swimming around. Interestingly, we had never seen a single catfish, but when I looked under the blocks, there were at least 50 of them. In data, on average, the number of species increased from six to 17 species.  

Buddy check with Sythong before getting into the water.

The survey was not finished. On the day we had to leave the island for Liger, I had to woke up early around six in the morning to do another survey: fish survey. My partner was Nilroth. My most memorable moment from that the survey was that I saw a “Golden Trevally!” It is an immense fish. It was swimming above my head calmly, trying to find food in the early morning. In fact, mostly, we have to do the fish survey in the early morning because that is the time when all the fish is trying to hunt.

 

                          GIANT STRIDE!

Overall, spotting the Golden Trevally–to me–was everything.

 

The Physics Behind Marvel’s Superhero: Wolverine

Wolverine

Real Name: James Howlett

Byname: Logan

Place of Birth: Alberta, Canada

Citizenship: Canadian

Life Span: About 200 Years

Weight: 195 Lbs (Without Adamantium  skeleton), 300 Lbs (with Adamantium skeleton)

You must be the exotic one if you have not heard, seen, or read the “Marvel comics” or the “Marvel movies.” It was created in the United States of America since 1939 with its first release of a comic book called, “Timley’s Publication.” Throughout the time, Marvel entertainment published abundance of new and adventurous comic books including many distinguished characters especially the superheroes. Those superheroes were illustrated and put into the stories whose astonishing superpowers possibly could be explained by our modern physics whether it is practicable or impractical.

As mentioned, in the entire Marvel history, there are a lot of established fictional characters who significantly play her or his roles in the comics or movies of their mind-blowing superpowers. Moreover, you must be wondering who is the man above. Generally and as written above, his name is James Howlett  and also known as “Wolverine.” He is actually one of the top Marvel superheroes: Spider-Man, Captain Marvel, Hulk, Thor, Iron Man, Luke Cage, Black Widow, Daredevil, and Captain America. His first appearance in Marvel comics was in the “Incredible Hulk” since 1974.

Who is Wolverine?

Wolverine is a mutant (meaning his DNA is changed) with many incredible powers who has the “ability to regenerate ability to regenerate damaged or destroyed areas of his cellular structure at a rate far greater than that of an ordinary human.” People have deemed him as a “subspecies of humans (Homo sapiens superior). Furthermore, he has the powers of withstanding all types of poisons, resisting aging, and having an acute sense of seeing far distance. So you can say that he is immortal; in fact, he is mortal. He could be dead if there are potential accidents that he got injuries at the “vital organs” and loss of physical form.

Despite his superpowers, he does have abilities like other humans. He did train at many tasks as a C.I.A operative, a soldier, a Samurai, a spy, a member of X-men, and hand to hand fighter known as the “combatant.” In addition, Wolverine is also an expert in many types weapons, vehicles, computer system, explosive, and assassination techniques.  If you are a truly a supporter of Wolverine, you might notice that he could speak in multiple languages such as Japanese, Russian, Chinese, Cheyenne, Lakota, and Spanish.

Regeneration

As a matter of fact, you may experience regeneration at some points while playing your video games. The best example is Minecraft. There is a portion that you can drink to regenerate the player at a fast speed and limited duration. But for Wolverine, his ability to regenerate is overwhelmingly impressive. Regeneration is a permanent ability he has; it is inherently working when he got cuts or even in an intense situation of someone poking him with a sword.

When a normal human received a wound or cuts, it takes times to heal or regenerate which depends on the wound condition. And by means of regeneration, it is the “process by which some organisms replace or restore lost or amputated body parts,” or biologically, it is the “reactivation of development in later life to restore missing tissues.” In reality, there are actually some organisms who can regenerate itself when it lost its limbs or some other parts of their body. For instance, the salamanders, axolotls, starfish, spiders, and other types of lizards have the ability of regeneration.

Wolverine’s regeneration in the fictional comics or movies is actually a complicated one. The first explanation that can crack this enigma is related to Wolverine’s last name, Howlett; it is surprisingly a protein. According to the paper was submitted to the Journal of Superhero Mutational Science by graduate students from the University of British Columbia, stated that “Wolverine’s healing abilities have striking similarities to that seen in axolotl, an amphibian with the capacity to regenerate amputated limbs.” The Howlett protein within Wolverine is characterized similarly to the protein within the axolotls, called “Amblox.”

                                                                                 (scq.ubc.ca)

However, it clearly shows that it definitely takes sometimes for the axolotl to heal when it takes a second for Wolverine to heal.

 

How does that work? Howlett protein is everywhere in Wolverine’s body and to answer the question, it is all about an activity of Howlett within his cell. “Wolverine has a significantly elevated amount of Howlett per cell than the axolotl by a factor of 100,” but that does not explain the reason why the rate of Wolverine’s regeneration is rapid. Therefore, the students set up a simulation of observing “the rate of product formation by Howlett” compares to the rate of product formation by Amblox. As a result, it expressly demonstrates that Howlett protein has a greater rate of healing Wolverine rather than the axolotl’s protein.

Besides Howlett, there is another key protein that contributes to the regeneration; it is called, “Lin28a.” As an American digital media company, Inverse stated that “In embryonic cells where the protein is fully activated, Lin28a becomes more and more dormant as the organism ages.” This could possibly apply to one of the reasons of how does Wolverine’s regeneration works. It further explained that there is a simulation when the researchers changed a mouse genetically by injecting the substance to keep the mouse produces the Lin28a protein. It turns out that it is working. When the mouse got cut off one of its toes, it grew back with a fast speed back to a normal toe.  

Conclusion

As stated, Wolverine is one of the incredible characters in the Marvel history. His phenomenal power, regeneration, clearly surprises all the Marvel supporters; however, there is a lack of explanation of how it is actually working. It is very complex to comprehend expressly about Wolverine’s power since it is all going down to the system of his protein within the cell. The explanation of all the introduced proteins including Amblox and Lin28a are existing in this real world.

Furthermore, it seems realistic that human can be healed close to the speed of Wolverine’s regeneration by following the procedure of injecting the Lin28a protein. However, this is not reasonable since researchers, or us do not know what are the consequences. Not only the Lin28a injection seems to be unrealistic, but also the Howlett protein. After all, Howlett protein is literally a fictional protein which the author characterized it similarly to the Amblox. But for most of the parts from the explanation, it still could be possible and durable with our modernized technology and knowledge that we can have the power of regeneration as Wolverine.

 

Works Cited

Forbes, Forbes Magazine, www.forbes.com/forbes/welcome/?toURL=https://www.forbes.com/sites/jvchamary/2016/02/29/deadpool-science/&refURL=&referrer=.

“8 Regenerative Animals Changing the Face of Medicine.” DermeffaceFX7 Info, 18 Feb. 2016, www.dermeffacefx7.com/info/8-regenerative-animals-changing-the-face-of-medicine/.

Cronin, Brian. “What Was the First Marvel Comic Book?” CBR, 3 Apr. 2018, www.cbr.com/marvel-comics-first-comic/.

Dvorsky, George. “A Remarkably Detailed Fake Study of Wolverine’s Regeneration Abilities.” io9, io9.Gizmodo.com, 24 Sept. 2013, io9.gizmodo.com/a-remarkably-detailed-fake-study-of-wolverine-s-regener-1377381586.

Gilbert, Scott F. “Regeneration.” Developmental Biology. 6th Edition., U.S. National Library of Medicine, 1 Jan. 1970, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK9971/.

Goss, Richard Johnson. “Regeneration.” Encyclopædia Britannica, Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., 22 Aug. 2016, www.britannica.com/science/regeneration-biology.

Holmes, Adam. “The Truth About Wolverine’s Healing Factor In Logan.” CINEMABLEND, CINEMABLEND, 26 May 2017, www.cinemablend.com/news/1575799/the-truth-about-wolverines-healing-factor-in-logan.’

Sloat, Sarah. “Humans, Too, Possess the Regenerative Abilities of X-23 and Wolverine.” Inverse, www.inverse.com/article/26640-logan-laura-x23-wolverine-regenerative-power-healing.

“Top Marvel Heroes.” Marvel.com: The Official Site, marvel.com/characters/list/994/top_marvel_heroes.

“Wolverine.” Characters | Marvel.com, marvel.com/characters/66/wolverine.

http://www.scq.ubc.ca/wp-content/uploads/2013/09/HOWLETT-PAPER-09182013.pdf

Quality Content – Impact Hub

Bats & Echolocation

This was a small research we did during our “sound waves” study in physics class. Our facilitator, Samantha, assigned us many different topics to research on with the purpose of dot-connecting our lessons to the world information. 

BATS AND ECHOLOCATION

BY: VENGHOUR THAN & SAMNANG HOR

What is Bat?

Bats are found all around the world and there are hundreds of different species of bat. These bats are living in caves and forest, mostly in the Southern Hemisphere. Bats are mammals that have fur or hair covered their bodies and are warm-blooded. Bats are the only mammals that can fly, it’s wing has a very similar bones to our human hand and arm, connect the skin that stretched between long finger bones and the body to form the wing membrane. This mammals hunt at night by using their exceptional sight to pick out their preys. Bats prey such as insects, frogs, and small rodents. Bats have a slight sixth sense known as echolocation to locate prey by the sounds that are reflected back to them.                                                  

What is Echolocation?

The use of sound waves combining with echoes is called “echolocation.” It is to determine the location of the objects are in space mostly at night. Bats are the most standout mammals that use echolocation to navigate and find their food since they are blind. Bats’ uses of echolocation are the same as humans’ uses of eyes to see. Its process of using sound waves and echoes to survive every day is very complicating. But do not get it wrong here, there are others animals having the ability to use echolocation for the same reasons of navigation and food searching including dolphins, whales, other birds and even humans.

The Process of Bat’s echolocation

(the sonogram of the bat – ASU)

In order to echolocate, the bat is required to have three essential things: voice, ears, and echoes. Echo is “a sound or sounds caused by the reflection of sound waves from a surface back to the listener.” Down here is the picture of bat’s ear. First of all, the bat will let a chirp (ultrasonic sound); as the sound waves reach the targeted object, it will bounce back as echoes reaching back the bat’s ear. Now, the echoes will pass the ear cartilage into the ear canal. Then, it continues its way to the eardrum where it starts to vibrate, and that vibration will pursue its way to cochlea until the basilar membrane. In brief explanation, the vibration from the ear canal cannot be transported to the basilar members; it had to go through a conversion. It is all happened in the “cochlea.” If you look at the diagram down below, it is explaining how the cochlea works. When the vibration approaches the cochlea, it instantly converts into nerve impulses. Nerve impulses are the smooth flows of vibration. Then, those impulses transport to the brain for interpretation. Since bat does not live in the space with one object, it had its owns technique of knowing multiple of objects at the same time. To do so, the bat had to chirp for several times with distinguished frequencies in a different location. Therefore, when the echoes reach back its ears with different frequencies, it can figure the destination, sizes, and shapes.

Conclusion

Bat is a very special kind of animal among the others with the ability of echolocating. The object’s location, size, and shape can be figured out by its chirp. In addition, by letting a chirp, the bat can produce and hear the sound at the frequencies over 100,000 waves every second. With its complex and amazing life survival skill, it is actually the birth of many modern sonar technologies.

Resource:

http://www.bats.org.uk/pages/all_about_bats.html

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=laeE4icRYp4

https://askabiologist.asu.edu/echolocation

https://www.google.com.kh/search?q=what+is+echo&rlz=1C1AVUC_enKH772KH772&oq=what+is+echo&aqs=chrome..69i57j0l5.3146j0j9&sourceid=chrome&ie=UTF-8&safe=active&ssui=on

 

Collection of Arts

Summary: Basically, or this Round two of my Collection of Art, the main focus is on the “power of women.” I spent many hours just to find a fierce looking photograph of a female celebrity online. My initial goal was at least getting one drawing done with my professional drawing skills. Finally, I chose the photo of Jessie J’s album cover titled, “Who You Are.” The title was perfect with my focus on women’s power. Therefore, I decided to stick with the photo and began my drawing adventure.

Extra Research: Early before the drawing, I searched up for many techniques and other resources. With the first glance at Jessie’s photo, it was a shock. With honesty, I regarded Jessie’s photo the most difficult portrait to draw. Basically, I began to research many things: human features, face, and expression.

Not just pictures, I also did research for videos to find tips on shading especially with Jessie’s eyes. Furthermore, finding other inspiration from other artists who have experience with celebrity draw. 

  1. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=P186ToO-jkY – eye shadowing
  2. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sd-8rRJwbso – Ariana Grande portrait
  3. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XxNlD naltOo – Selena Gomez portrait

Final Product: Obviously, this drawing of Jessie J was a time-consuming project; simultaneously, it was extremely challenging. But here is my drawing! I hope you will criticize and comment on it for further development. Overall, I am proud and grateful the ten hours of working on this difficult art piece.

LLA HIV Workshop

Do you know what is HIV or AIDS? Are they the same? Is it actually true people die from HIV? On the 28th of March, 2018, a group of students from one of our school explorations studies about HIV/AIDS hosted a workshop. The whole workshop was phenomenal and very informational. HIV and AIDS are common diseases in Cambodia with high population.  In 2016, about 71,000 Cambodians are living with HIV; About 1,800 to 2,900 people died annually from this virus. For the HIV treatment providing, only 57,000 Cambodians are on the treatment. It is major problem which devastates the entire nation and it is very important for all of us to improve the educational system in order to distribute the words to people since knowledge of HIV prevention among young people age 15-24 is only 39.6%. 

I am very interested in this specific topic and happy that I could join the workshop because HIV and AIDS problems should be the topics that needed discussion from people the same as the other plights. After joining this workshop, I have learned and comprehend many aspects of the scientific side of the HIV/AIDs and the social perspectives on HIV/AIDS: stigmatization, stereotypes, and discrimination. Additionally, I have not learned HIV/AIDS expressly and this workshop was actually an amazing start for me. 

The whole workshop was divided into four distinguished sessions. Each session was sharing a different topic that was related to HIV/AIDS. The first session was about the introduction of HIV and AIDS. So, HIV is standing for “Human Immunodeficiency Virus” and AID is standing for “Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome.” Both of them are totally a different thing. Many people have confused that HIV and AIDS are the same things, but they are not.  HIV is a virus which is an invader virus from the chimpanzees. In our immune system, there are T-helper cells. Its significant role is to alert all the other cells to fight the infectious bacteria or diseases. But what the HIV virus does is it infected us through our body then our cells. The HIV virus will replicate itself inside the cells and continuously attack the T-helper cells.  Therefore, our immune system will be weak. Consequently, there will be many collections of infectious diseases known as AIDs. This is meaning that “people do not die because of HIV, they die because of the diseases that enter the body because of AIDS” 

In session two, I learned about HIV/AIDS-Related Stigma and Discrimination. The session began with questions for the brainstorming: What stigmas exist against people living with HIV/AIDS, Do you know anyone who is HIV-positive who has experienced stigmatization or discrimination, Where do these stigmas/stereotypes of people living with HIV come from? It was a fruitful discussion among all the participants. Stigma or discrimination against the people who have HIV or AIDS is actually issuing many adverse effects as the picture is shown below. 

 

For the third and last sessions, I comprehend about the transmission/prevention and the treatment. People can be infected with HIV in a variety of situations. If you look at the picture down below, the main reason for receiving HIV is practicing an unprotected sexual intercourse along with the other corner reasons. Eventually, the person who is infected with HIV will have STI (Sexually Transmitted Infection) which is an infection passes through sexual contact, especially vaginal intercourse, anal/oral sex. With high chance, STI can develop to STD and it stands for “Sex Transmitted Disease.” The treatment for HIV patients is extremely complicated and challenging. There are 80% of people are living with HIV are on ART. ART is a treatment with the combination of different of ARVs (treatment that is used to reduce HIV in the body) that cease the replication of HIV. The treatment is divided into three lines.  In simple words, the HIV patients will start off with the first line treatment, but when the body starts to develop the resistance, it means that they have to continue to the second line treatments. As mentioned, taking HIV treatment is extremely difficult. There are HIV people who confront this challenge of not seeking for treatment for fear of discrimination from their families, friends, community, co-workers, bosses. Some people said, “I dare not go. I am too afraid.” 

Overall, this workshop is incredible; it teaches many of us including myself. I have learned a lot than before and for sure, creating awareness and normalizing this problem are essential because most of the population has deemed people who have HIV/AIDS as weak characters with lack of abilities and capabilities in their entire lives. Therefore, it is the right time for me and you to start this adventure together in order to discredit all of those lies and educate people in order to prevent this struggle. 

Greek Mythology – DIONYSUS, the god of viticulture

This is the research paper that I wrote during Literacy class on Unit 4, Ancient Civilization. I hope you enjoy and simultaneously learn about all the incredible Greek god mythology and the personality of the god. 

Image result for dionysusDIONYSUS

God of Wine and Grapes

Gender: Male

Rule Over: Grape Harvest, Wine Making, of Ritual Madness, Religious Ecstasy, and Theater

Names: Acratophorus, Acroreites, Adoneus, Aegobolus, etc.

Consort: Ariadne

Dionysus is one of the last Olympian gods who was best known as the god of viticulture, fertility, and drama in ancient Greek religion and mythology. He was worshipped in the early 1500-100 BC by Mycenaean Greeks. Although it is uncertain where Dionysus’ cult originated, he is often depicted as having foreign origins in the Legend. Most of the time, Dionysus was referred to as “Bacchus.”  

Throughout Greek mythology, there are many remarkable stories about him as a child and in his adulthood. There was his unusual birth to his journey of rescuing another princess, and the stories with other main gods and goddesses. The journey of Dionysus was filled with happiness, devastation, jealousy, hypocrisy, and regret.

Dionysus married a princess named Ariadne who was from another kingdom and they had four children: Oenopion, Thoas, Staphylos, and Peparethus. In addition, he had many family members, including his parents, Zeus and Semele. He had a lot of siblings – a total of 14 – who are included in the following table:

Ares God of war
Athena Goddess of wisdom and military victory
Apollo God of many things (music, poetry, art, oracles, archery, plague, medicine, sun, light, and knowledge)
Artemis Goddess of hunt
Aphrodite Goddess of love, beauty, and eternal youth
Hebe God of youth
Hermes Messenger of the gods, god of trade, thieves, travelers, sports, athletes, border crossings, guide to the Underworld
Heracles God of strength, heroes, sports, athletes, health, agriculture, fertility, trade, oracles and divine protector of mankind
Helen of Troy The most beautiful woman in the world who was married to King Menelaus of Sparta
Hephaestus God of fire, metalworking, stone masonry, forges, the art of sculpture, and blacksmiths
Perseus The legendary founder of Mycenae
Minos The first King of Crete
The Muses Goddesses of literature, science, and the arts
The Graces Goddesses of charm, beauty, nature, human creativity, and fertility, together known as the Charites

Dionysus Mythology

  • Birth

Dionysus was the son of Zeus, the god of thunder, and Semele, a human; he is the only god who had a mortal parent. Late at night, Zeus went to Semele, the princess of Thebes. She could see his physical appearance, but she could feel Zeus’ divine presence. Semele felt pleasure and was pleased to be a lover of the god, even though she had no clue which god it was. Later on, Semele became pregnant. The fact that Semele was pregnant was heard by Hera, the goddess of women, marriage, family, and childbirth. She was also designated as the “former” wife of Zeus. Out of jealousy, Hera went to Semele and planted seeds of doubt into Semele’s head, which made her doubt her husband’s appearance. When Zeus visited her again, Semele demanded he grant her a request at the River Styx. Afterwards, she asked Zeus to reveal his true form. Zeus was feeling struggled, but he decided to show her anyway. At that moment, Semele was burnt down to a crisp due to the power of Zeus’s glory.

However, Zeus was able to rescue the fetus of Dionysus inside Semele’s stomach. He stitched the fetus inside his thigh until it was born. Once Dionysus was born, he was instantaneously conferred as an immortal god. But Hera was jealous of the fact that Dionysus was still alive. Therefore, she ordered Titans, the deities who preceded the Olympians, to kill him. But, his death did not last; right after Dionysus’s death, Rhea, Zeus’s mother, brought him back to life. Dionysus was eventually raised at Mount Nysa by Hermes.

  • The Discovery of Wine/ The Wandering of Dionysus

During his childhood at Mount Nysa, Dionysus discovered grapevines. After he received the infliction of madness from Hera, he started to wander around the world. He went to Aigyptos (Egypt) and Syria with the main purpose of distributing his culture of grapevines. During his journey, he was confronted with many obstacles in many different places.

Once Dionysus was confronted by pirates while he was walking back to his home place, Thebes. The pirates saw his appearance as a young rich man. Then, the pirates besieged him and brought him to their ship. The crew tied a rope around his body, but it kept falling apart. After many tries, the crew realized that Dionysus was a god because only the gods had this kind of superpower. The helmsman thought that he should release Dionysus, but the sailor did not obey. Instead, the sailor started to sail the ship. Unfortunately, the ship did not move and it started to overgrow with vines. Dionysus then transformed himself into a lion and began to chase all the crewmen. Afterward, he transformed himself into a dolphin and leaped overboard.

  • Midas and the Touch of Gold

Another myth describes the story of Dionysus finding out that he lost his schoolmaster and foster father, Silenus. Silenus was a drunken man who had a strong addiction to alcohol. He wandered around until one day he was found by some peasants. They brought him to the kingdom of King Midas. He was welcomed and fulfilled with many foods and entertainment for ten days. On the eleventh day, King Midas brought Silenus back to Dionysus.

Dionysus felt pleasure and gratitude to King Midas. In return, he offered Midas his choice of whatever he wanted. King Midas decided that whatever he touched, it must be turned to gold. Dionysus was feeling conflicted with giving him the offer, thinking he should make a less greedy choice. But King Midas was really enthusiastic about his new power. He touched oak twigs and they turned to gold. Overjoyed, he ordered the servants to bring him food, but when he touched the food, everything turned into gold. Midas was really depressed; he regretted the decision he made. He begged Dionysus to take back the offer. Dionysus told him to wash his hands in the river Pactolus. Once his hands touched the water, the whole river turned to gold.

  • Loves

Known also as the god of theatre, Dionysus had love relationships with many gods and goddesses. This means he was also a god of homosexuality (Homosexuality; Effeminacy; Cross-dressing). His first love was with Aphrodite; they were believed to have had a son named “Priapos.” In contrast, there is a myth in which Aphrodite is the lover of Zeus, which triggers Hera’s jealousy. In revenge, Hera turns their son, Priapos, into an ugly character.

His next lover was the daughter of Thestius and wife of Oeneus, Althaea. They had  a great relationship and had a daughter named “Deianeira.”

Afterward, Dionysus had a long-term relationship with a mortal lady, Ariadne. She was the princess and the daughter of King Minos of Krete (Crete). Unluckily, when she was visiting the island of Naxos, Theseus, the guard, abandoned her while she slept. Then, Dionysus discovered Ariadne. They married and ended up having four children: Oenopion, a legendary king of Chios who best known as “wine drinker”; Thomas (Unknown); Staphylos, one of several personages; and Peparethus, a demigod son.

Symbolism and Attributes

Thyrsos of DionysosDionysus had many symbols and attributes throughout Greek culture. The most distinctive attribute of his was the “Thyrsos,” a pine-cone-tipped staff. The pine cone represented birth. The Thyrsos was actually an object for Dionysus and followers to carry for enjoyment and comfort. It had a significant role of representing birth because Dionysus was also the god of fertility and would use it to stir the wine.

The other symbols and attributes of Dionysus were the Thyrsos-staff head, grapevines, drinking cup, and his wreath made out of ivy leaves. Specifically, the grapevines symbolically represent his association with life. The grapevine is a cultivated plant and the stages of grape vines represent Dionysus’s death and rebirth. The drinking cup represents the object holding the liquid of life. As mentioned earlier, Dionysus uses the Thyrsos to fill the cup with wine.

Thyrsos of DionysosGrapevine of DionysosDrinking-Cup of DionysosIvy-Wreath of Dionysos

 

 

 

Dionysus also had his sacred animal, a leopard, as his transportation. Most of Panther of Dionysosthe time, he was depicted as a character who was sitting on the leopard or had leopard-skin apparel on his body.

 

General Information

  • What was Dionysus god of?  

In Greek mythology, Dionysus was not only the god of grapevines and viticulture. As mentioned above, he was also the god of fertility, theatre, and homosexuality, but there is even more – he was a god of many things:  

  1. Wine, Fruit, and Drunkenness
  2. Parties and Festivities
  3. Madness and Insanity
  4. Wilderness vegetation and predators (big cats)
  5. Reincarnation and Afterlife (He had the ability to bring the dead back to life from the Underworld. He once traveled to the Underworld to bring his mother’s soul, Semele, back to the earth.)
  • Physical Appearance

Dionysus riding panther | Greek mosaic from Pella C4th B.C. | Pella Archaeological Museum

Dionysus was mostly depicted as a powerful and strong man. His appearance was usually seen as a young man imposed with a full head of dark hair and wearing a beard; sometimes, he was beardless. He had a wreath of ivy leaves on his head and he would hold the Thyrsus in his hand while riding on the leopard. To achieve his standard look, he was usually naked, but sometimes, he would put on his leopard-skin clothes.

  • Locations

Dionysus could be found at Mount Olympus, the highest mountain in Greece. It was also where his father lived. In addition, Mount Nysa was his home and was where he was raised as a child. There is a feeling of uncertainty about whether Mount Nysa really exists or if it is just a mythical, geographical location in Greek mythology – there is no real answer.

As Dionysus was of the god of nature, his temple or theatre is located everywhere around us. The theatre symbolically represented his expression, duality, nature, and cultivation. Additionally, Dionysus could be found in the woods because he was the god of nature and his followers worshipped his cult in the woods while other gods had their own temples.

  • Nowadays Celebration

Contemporarily, there are some festivals and celebrations celebrating Dionysus. One celebration is called the “City Dionysia” or “Great Dionysia.” It is usually celebrated in the late March through early April, in Greece. During the festival, Greeks sing and dress up. Also, they sacrificed many goats to honor the gods. A large amount of wine is consumed in the celebration. On the first day of the festival, people carry the statue of Dionysus from the temple to the Theatre. Contestants compete with each other’s performance of their plays until they find a winner. This festival is commonly celebrated for three days.

There are also other festivals including the Lessor or Rural Dionysia, the Anthesteria, the Lenaea, and the “Dirty Monday.” “Dirty Monday” has been celebrated for many centuries if not millennia. It is held in Tyrnavos, Greece. The celebration is to honor the worship of Dionysus. Annually, on “Ash Monday,” the city is packed with participants, spectators, and tourists.

Conclusion

Dionysus was the only god who was expressly known as the god of grapevines, viticulture, and drama. He is mostly described as a drunken, selfish, bold, and patient man. His symbolisms are perfectly matched with our contemporary cultivation of grapes and winemaking. In addition, Dionysus is an immortal god who was born from his father’s thigh. Uniquely, he was the only god with a mortal parent and had the ability to bring the dead back to life. Overall, his journeys throughout the world made many people learn from their mistakes and offered a multitude of moral lessons.

Works Cited

DIONYSUS : Summary of the Olympian God, www.theoi.com/Summary/Dionysos.html.

Bacchus – Roman God of Wine – Crystalinks, www.crystalinks.com/bacchus.html.

“ARIADNE.” ARIADNE – Greek Goddess Wife of Dionysus (Roman Libera), www.theoi.com/Georgikos/Ariadne.html.

Britannica, The Editors of Encyclopaedia. “Dionysus.” Encyclopædia Britannica, Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., 7 Feb. 2018, www.britannica.com/topic/Dionysus.

“DIONYSOS LOVES.” DIONYSUS MYTHS 4 LOVES – Greek Mythology, www.theoi.com/Olympios/DionysosLoves.html#Aphrodite.

“DIONYSUS – Greek God of Wine & Festivity.” Theoi Greek Mythology, www.theoi.com/Olympios/Dionysos.html#Attributes.

“Dionysus.” Greek Mythology, www.greekmythology.com/Other_Gods/Dionysus/dionysus.html.

“Dionysus.” Dionysus ***, www.talesbeyondbelief.com/greek-gods/dionysus.htm.

“Dionysus • Facts and Information on Greek God Dionysus.” Greek Gods & Goddesses, greekgodsandgoddesses.net/gods/dionysus/.

“Dionysus, the God of Wine, Fertility and Theater.” Symbols and Their Meanings – Mythology and Gods – Mythical Creatures, 12 Jan. 2018, mythologian.net/dionysus-the-god-of-wine-fertility-and-theater/.

“Dionysus, the Greek God of Wine in Greek Mythology.” Greek Gods, www.greek-gods.info/greek-gods/dionysus/#dionysus-symbols.

“The Festival of Dionysus: The Origins of Ancient Greek Theater.” Bright Hub Education, 6 Jan. 2012, www.brighthubeducation.com/homework-help-literature/64195-festival-of-dionysus/.

“Greek Mythology.” Ducksters Educational Site, www.ducksters.com/history/ancient_greece/dionysus.php.

“Greek Myths: Have You Met Dionysus, God of Wine?” TripSavvy, www.tripsavvy.com/greek-mythology-dionysus-1525977.

“Greek Stories about Dionysus-Midas and the Touch of Gold.” Greek Gods, www.greek-gods.info/greek-gods/dionysus/myths/midas-touch-of-gold/.

“Symbols and Icons of Dionysos.” The Dionysian Artist, 25 Oct. 2016, dionysianartist.wordpress.com/2016/10/24/symbols-and-icons-of-dionysos/.

“The Wanderings of Dionysus.” Greek Mythology, www.greekmythology.com/Myths/The_Myths/The_Wanderings_of_Dionysus/the_wanderings_of_dionysus.html.

“Dionysus (Bacchus, the Wanderer).” Dionysus, God of Wine, Festivals and Pleasure, the Wanderer – Greek Gods, www.greek-gods.org/olympian-gods/dionysus.php.

 

Another Long Trip – March – 8th – 13th

Here we go! This was another long trip from the first trip we had which was closed for one week. As always, we were making a lot of accomplishment from a long stay on the island. These are the overall activities we did:

  1. Built the concrete blocks for the marine artificial reef
  2. Making a triangular cluster as another alternative for marine organisms
  3. Deployed the first artificial reef in the first Marine Fisheries Management Area in Cambodia (MFMA)
  4. Conducted baseline surveys of their study site
  5. Beach Clean up and rubbish creativity
Pouring the mixture into the mold.

Building the concrete blocks was the start of the entire trip. We met Ricky, who was responsible for facilitating us through the entire process of the making those blocks. It was a tiring and fun task. We divided everyone into a small team with a different small task: chain team, cement team, and pebble team. All the LMRT members all began with the assembling of the concrete mold which would make six blocks at a time. Then, we went to our small teams doing the assigned task. In order to make the blocks, we mixed the cement with sand, pebbles, and water. After, we poured the mixture into the mold. We dried the blocks for about a day, but right before we took out the concrete blocks, we carved those with our names. All of these blocks will be deployed in the future an artificial reef for the marine biodiversity at Koh Seh. Simultaneously, it does have an important role in preventing an illegal fishing, trawling.

The finished blocks with our names!
Soliday and I learned how to tie some knots.

Right after finishing all the jobs with the blocks, we continued our duty to complete the make of cluster. As one of our members said, “[Cluster] is a triangular bamboo shelter with ropes dangling into the water.” This is another alternative to creating a habitat for the marine organisms besides the artificial reef (concrete blocks). We can say that cluster is a hand-made buoy; it can replace with the plastic one. Once we deployed the cluster, it will help to facilitate all the fish including the juveniles.

      We finished the cluster.

When we were done with both building projects, we are ready to deploy. This deploy is part of constructing the Marine Fisheries Management Area in Cambodia project (MFMA). MFMA is a huge project that Marine Conservation Cambodia (MCC) proposed to the government of creating a sustainable area or habitat and preventing all the illegal fishing for the Kep Archipelago. MCC chose various locations around the Archipelago to deploy the artificial reef on the GPS with the total of 47 spots. The clusters will be deployed into the ocean, used to mark the location of each plot, and connected to the deployed artificial reefs underwater. LMRT team has done a phenomenal work of helping to deploy one of the MFMA spots. Again, it is a tiring job, but we are happy and proud of everybody who involved since we are taking baby steps to change the world.

MFMA Map
Our cluster has deployed!!

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The spot we helped to deploy is our official surveying location for the LMRT team to study for the rest of the years here. We had been practicing all the three types of survey (fish, invertebrates, and substrates) since the last trip, and of course, we were ready to start this first official survey. It is a 100-meter survey with the blocks in the midway. Sadly, we missed two of our teammates because they were sick. We still had six people left, and it was perfect to divide into each survey. Soliday and I were the invertebrate teams; Sythong and Thiny were in the fish team; Kimseng and Lux were in the substrate team. As part of the survey, the fish had to go to first in the early morning to lay out the lines and start to survey because fish would be waking up and ready to find food. After, the invertebrate and substrate team go last.

Me! Gian strike!
LMRT learned how to use the underwater camera.

During my invertebrate survey, there was nothing found. We saw only some conch, urchins, sea stars, and sea hares. We would not expect to see many sea hares the surveying location; eventually, we decided to add sea hare as another species to our slate for the survey. The area was not sand instead silty, and there were not many fish and other organisms started to live there yet. For the entire trip, we got to survey three times for each. So, we got to have three replicates. Every night, we logged our dives and fill the data from the slates. As looking through the data, we are hopeful to see more organisms starting to live and the improvement of our benthic zone. In addition, we named our location as “Karen’s Reef.” We named to show our gratitude to Karen.

Substrate team was entering the data.
We did the “LMRT” design for our bungalow stair.

I would say it was one of my best trip here at the Koh Seh since I am very excited to see more lives at our Karen’s Reef. We did a lot of help our ocean and we are going to accomplish more. After participating in these small activities to save our ocean, it is very emotional for me somehow because I cannot imagine myself and others doing all of these to serve the ocean, our home. If you want to comprehend more about the MFMA, please click this link below.

https://www.facebook.com/volunteer.marine.conservation.cambodia/

 

Physics Research: Hedy Lamarr

To honor the greatest accomplishments by women in STEM, we, the students in physics class, did research on many talented ladies around the world in STEM field.  

Hedwig Eva Maria Kiesler

Actress, Inventor

BORN: 9th November, 1914

DIED: 19th January, 2000

Citizenship: Austria, United States of America (from 1953)

Stage name: Hedy Lamarr

Co-founder of the invention of Spread Spectrum Technology

Known during her time as the “Most Beautiful Girl in the World,” Hedy Lamarr emerged in the 1940s with her talented skills in film production. Besides her beautiful face, she also made an invention of new technology. The newly discovered invention was called “Spread Spectrum Technology,” also known for the Silver Screen Exploits. In contemporary times, this invention has assumed a major role in developing and manufacturing technology in the field of wireless communication.

Hedy Lamarr was born Hedwig Eva Maria Kiesler, on the 9th of November, 1914 in Vienna, Austria-Hungary. She was of Jewish descent and immigrated from Austria to the United States of America in 1937 to pursue a career in the filming industries. At the time of her immigration, Lamarr was a young, bright girl who was already showing her interest in and dream of becoming an actress.

Career Life Time

Through hard work and her strong commitment to chase her vivid dream, at age 17, Lamarr became a young, talented actress and first appeared in the film “Geld auf der straße” (Money On The Road). At that time, her career in the film industries gave her a strong, significant presence in the Czechoslovakian and German film industries. In addition, in 1933, she was in the German film “Ecstasy,” which brought her to the attention of Hollywood producers. Later on, Lamarr was offered a contract and became a star of the media company MGM, Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer.

Before becoming a shining, talented star, Lamarr experienced a lot of rough life moments. In 1933, she married a man, Friedrich Mandl, a wealthy Austrian. He was a controlling man who prevented her from pursuing her dream and acting career. Lamarr decided to escape from her husband for Paris, France. It was here in Paris that she started to blossom in her career and continued her acting in many entertainment venues until reaching Hollywood.

By the 1940s, she had acted in 18 Hollywood movies. At that time, many people did not appreciate and admire her talented acting skills; they mostly emphasized her beauty. As Lamarr got older, her acting career started to wither, and by the 1950s, her presence in the film industry became extremely limited. In spite of her career’s eventual decline, Lamarr contributed some timeless quotes to inspire women and others, such as the following:

  1. “Any girl can be glamorous. All you have to do is stand still and look stupid.”
  2. “A good painting to me has always been like a friend. It keeps me company, comforts and inspires.”
  3. “Hope and curiosity about the future seemed better than guarantees. The unknown was always so attractive to me…and still is.”

Spread Spectrum Technology

Besides her career in acting and filming, Hedy Lamarr was also a talented inventor. She was the first female inventor to discover Spread Spectrum Technology. It all started in the early 1940s when Lamarr and her partner, George Antheil, tried to develop the “Secret Communications System.” It is a patented device that manipulates radio frequencies at irregular intervals during reception or transmission. This means that this invention could form an unbreakable code that could effectively stop the transmission of information and messages by enemy spies.

Lamarr and Antheil invented this technology for a couple of reasons. First of all, she had personal reasons against the war, and she tried to work relentlessly to build this new invention for the Allies to win the war against the Nazis during World War II. Second of all, when she first married Mandl, he was actually selling munitions to Hitler. And finally, Lamarr was been severely degraded by her husband, who had insisted she did not have the abilities or capability to succeed in his field. In addition to inspiring her inventions, these were the reasons that had caused Lamarr to leave her husband and pursue her career in the first place.

Subsequently, Lamarr and Antheil came together to create and develop this invention. They were both authorized to develop their invention by the American government in 1941, but it did not attract the attention of greater audiences until ten years later. However, Spread Spectrum Technology was eventually implemented on naval ships during the Cuban Missile Crisis; and in fact, it continued to emerge in numerous military applications thereafter. In particular, this technology improved communication based on radio frequencies by changing at irregular periods that were synchronized (operated at same time and rate) between the transmitter and receiver. This technology could maintain the security of the messages that were being sent and prevented any hackers from transmitting them.

Spread Spectrum Technology becomes the main factor in the development of present and future wireless communication systems, including cellular phones, fax machines, and other wireless operations. Simultaneously, it is currently utilized in wireless “LAN,” Local Area Network, which is used in barcode scanners, palmtop computers, radio modern devices for warehousing, digital dispatch, digital cellular phone communication, computer data, city, state, or country networks for passing taxes, and email or multi-media data. This technology was also the main contributor to the invention of WiFi and the internet, which are really beneficial to today’s world population.

Before/After Death

In 1997, Lamarr and her partner received and were honored by the Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF) Pioneer Award. Later on, she became the first female recipient of the BUBBLE Gnass Spirit of Achievement Award. Hedy Lamarr died in the year 2000. Besides all of her inventing accomplishments, she was also the face for millions of women. But Lamarr was not just a pretty face – she helped shatter stereotypes of what a woman could be and earned her place among the 20th century’s most important women inventors.

Works Cited

America’s Inventor[Tm] Online: Profile, inventionconvention.com/americasinventor/dec97issue/section2.html.

“Biography.” IMDb, IMDb.com, www.imdb.com/name/nm0001443/bio.

“Hedy Lamarr.” Hedy Lamarr – Engineering and Technology History Wiki, ethw.org/Hedy_Lamarr.

“Home.” Famous Scientists, www.famousscientists.org/hedy-lamarr/.

“Lemelson-MIT Program.” Hedy Lamarr | Lemelson-MIT Program, lemelson.mit.edu/resources/hedy-lamarr.

“Who Is Hedy Lamarr? Everything You Need to Know.” Childhood, Life Achievements & Timeline, www.thefamouspeople.com/profiles/hedy-lamarr-6139.php.