Greek Mythology – DIONYSUS, the god of viticulture

This is the research paper that I wrote during Literacy class on Unit 4, Ancient Civilization. I hope you enjoy and simultaneously learn about all the incredible Greek god mythology and the personality of the god. 

Image result for dionysusDIONYSUS

God of Wine and Grapes

Gender: Male

Rule Over: Grape Harvest, Wine Making, of Ritual Madness, Religious Ecstasy, and Theater

Names: Acratophorus, Acroreites, Adoneus, Aegobolus, etc.

Consort: Ariadne

Dionysus is one of the last Olympian gods who was best known as the god of viticulture, fertility, and drama in ancient Greek religion and mythology. He was worshipped in the early 1500-100 BC by Mycenaean Greeks. Although it is uncertain where Dionysus’ cult originated, he is often depicted as having foreign origins in the Legend. Most of the time, Dionysus was referred to as “Bacchus.”  

Throughout Greek mythology, there are many remarkable stories about him as a child and in his adulthood. There was his unusual birth to his journey of rescuing another princess, and the stories with other main gods and goddesses. The journey of Dionysus was filled with happiness, devastation, jealousy, hypocrisy, and regret.

Dionysus married a princess named Ariadne who was from another kingdom and they had four children: Oenopion, Thoas, Staphylos, and Peparethus. In addition, he had many family members, including his parents, Zeus and Semele. He had a lot of siblings – a total of 14 – who are included in the following table:

Ares God of war
Athena Goddess of wisdom and military victory
Apollo God of many things (music, poetry, art, oracles, archery, plague, medicine, sun, light, and knowledge)
Artemis Goddess of hunt
Aphrodite Goddess of love, beauty, and eternal youth
Hebe God of youth
Hermes Messenger of the gods, god of trade, thieves, travelers, sports, athletes, border crossings, guide to the Underworld
Heracles God of strength, heroes, sports, athletes, health, agriculture, fertility, trade, oracles and divine protector of mankind
Helen of Troy The most beautiful woman in the world who was married to King Menelaus of Sparta
Hephaestus God of fire, metalworking, stone masonry, forges, the art of sculpture, and blacksmiths
Perseus The legendary founder of Mycenae
Minos The first King of Crete
The Muses Goddesses of literature, science, and the arts
The Graces Goddesses of charm, beauty, nature, human creativity, and fertility, together known as the Charites

Dionysus Mythology

  • Birth

Dionysus was the son of Zeus, the god of thunder, and Semele, a human; he is the only god who had a mortal parent. Late at night, Zeus went to Semele, the princess of Thebes. She could see his physical appearance, but she could feel Zeus’ divine presence. Semele felt pleasure and was pleased to be a lover of the god, even though she had no clue which god it was. Later on, Semele became pregnant. The fact that Semele was pregnant was heard by Hera, the goddess of women, marriage, family, and childbirth. She was also designated as the “former” wife of Zeus. Out of jealousy, Hera went to Semele and planted seeds of doubt into Semele’s head, which made her doubt her husband’s appearance. When Zeus visited her again, Semele demanded he grant her a request at the River Styx. Afterwards, she asked Zeus to reveal his true form. Zeus was feeling struggled, but he decided to show her anyway. At that moment, Semele was burnt down to a crisp due to the power of Zeus’s glory.

However, Zeus was able to rescue the fetus of Dionysus inside Semele’s stomach. He stitched the fetus inside his thigh until it was born. Once Dionysus was born, he was instantaneously conferred as an immortal god. But Hera was jealous of the fact that Dionysus was still alive. Therefore, she ordered Titans, the deities who preceded the Olympians, to kill him. But, his death did not last; right after Dionysus’s death, Rhea, Zeus’s mother, brought him back to life. Dionysus was eventually raised at Mount Nysa by Hermes.

  • The Discovery of Wine/ The Wandering of Dionysus

During his childhood at Mount Nysa, Dionysus discovered grapevines. After he received the infliction of madness from Hera, he started to wander around the world. He went to Aigyptos (Egypt) and Syria with the main purpose of distributing his culture of grapevines. During his journey, he was confronted with many obstacles in many different places.

Once Dionysus was confronted by pirates while he was walking back to his home place, Thebes. The pirates saw his appearance as a young rich man. Then, the pirates besieged him and brought him to their ship. The crew tied a rope around his body, but it kept falling apart. After many tries, the crew realized that Dionysus was a god because only the gods had this kind of superpower. The helmsman thought that he should release Dionysus, but the sailor did not obey. Instead, the sailor started to sail the ship. Unfortunately, the ship did not move and it started to overgrow with vines. Dionysus then transformed himself into a lion and began to chase all the crewmen. Afterward, he transformed himself into a dolphin and leaped overboard.

  • Midas and the Touch of Gold

Another myth describes the story of Dionysus finding out that he lost his schoolmaster and foster father, Silenus. Silenus was a drunken man who had a strong addiction to alcohol. He wandered around until one day he was found by some peasants. They brought him to the kingdom of King Midas. He was welcomed and fulfilled with many foods and entertainment for ten days. On the eleventh day, King Midas brought Silenus back to Dionysus.

Dionysus felt pleasure and gratitude to King Midas. In return, he offered Midas his choice of whatever he wanted. King Midas decided that whatever he touched, it must be turned to gold. Dionysus was feeling conflicted with giving him the offer, thinking he should make a less greedy choice. But King Midas was really enthusiastic about his new power. He touched oak twigs and they turned to gold. Overjoyed, he ordered the servants to bring him food, but when he touched the food, everything turned into gold. Midas was really depressed; he regretted the decision he made. He begged Dionysus to take back the offer. Dionysus told him to wash his hands in the river Pactolus. Once his hands touched the water, the whole river turned to gold.

  • Loves

Known also as the god of theatre, Dionysus had love relationships with many gods and goddesses. This means he was also a god of homosexuality (Homosexuality; Effeminacy; Cross-dressing). His first love was with Aphrodite; they were believed to have had a son named “Priapos.” In contrast, there is a myth in which Aphrodite is the lover of Zeus, which triggers Hera’s jealousy. In revenge, Hera turns their son, Priapos, into an ugly character.

His next lover was the daughter of Thestius and wife of Oeneus, Althaea. They had  a great relationship and had a daughter named “Deianeira.”

Afterward, Dionysus had a long-term relationship with a mortal lady, Ariadne. She was the princess and the daughter of King Minos of Krete (Crete). Unluckily, when she was visiting the island of Naxos, Theseus, the guard, abandoned her while she slept. Then, Dionysus discovered Ariadne. They married and ended up having four children: Oenopion, a legendary king of Chios who best known as “wine drinker”; Thomas (Unknown); Staphylos, one of several personages; and Peparethus, a demigod son.

Symbolism and Attributes

Thyrsos of DionysosDionysus had many symbols and attributes throughout Greek culture. The most distinctive attribute of his was the “Thyrsos,” a pine-cone-tipped staff. The pine cone represented birth. The Thyrsos was actually an object for Dionysus and followers to carry for enjoyment and comfort. It had a significant role of representing birth because Dionysus was also the god of fertility and would use it to stir the wine.

The other symbols and attributes of Dionysus were the Thyrsos-staff head, grapevines, drinking cup, and his wreath made out of ivy leaves. Specifically, the grapevines symbolically represent his association with life. The grapevine is a cultivated plant and the stages of grape vines represent Dionysus’s death and rebirth. The drinking cup represents the object holding the liquid of life. As mentioned earlier, Dionysus uses the Thyrsos to fill the cup with wine.

Thyrsos of DionysosGrapevine of DionysosDrinking-Cup of DionysosIvy-Wreath of Dionysos

 

 

 

Dionysus also had his sacred animal, a leopard, as his transportation. Most of Panther of Dionysosthe time, he was depicted as a character who was sitting on the leopard or had leopard-skin apparel on his body.

 

General Information

  • What was Dionysus god of?  

In Greek mythology, Dionysus was not only the god of grapevines and viticulture. As mentioned above, he was also the god of fertility, theatre, and homosexuality, but there is even more – he was a god of many things:  

  1. Wine, Fruit, and Drunkenness
  2. Parties and Festivities
  3. Madness and Insanity
  4. Wilderness vegetation and predators (big cats)
  5. Reincarnation and Afterlife (He had the ability to bring the dead back to life from the Underworld. He once traveled to the Underworld to bring his mother’s soul, Semele, back to the earth.)
  • Physical Appearance

Dionysus riding panther | Greek mosaic from Pella C4th B.C. | Pella Archaeological Museum

Dionysus was mostly depicted as a powerful and strong man. His appearance was usually seen as a young man imposed with a full head of dark hair and wearing a beard; sometimes, he was beardless. He had a wreath of ivy leaves on his head and he would hold the Thyrsus in his hand while riding on the leopard. To achieve his standard look, he was usually naked, but sometimes, he would put on his leopard-skin clothes.

  • Locations

Dionysus could be found at Mount Olympus, the highest mountain in Greece. It was also where his father lived. In addition, Mount Nysa was his home and was where he was raised as a child. There is a feeling of uncertainty about whether Mount Nysa really exists or if it is just a mythical, geographical location in Greek mythology – there is no real answer.

As Dionysus was of the god of nature, his temple or theatre is located everywhere around us. The theatre symbolically represented his expression, duality, nature, and cultivation. Additionally, Dionysus could be found in the woods because he was the god of nature and his followers worshipped his cult in the woods while other gods had their own temples.

  • Nowadays Celebration

Contemporarily, there are some festivals and celebrations celebrating Dionysus. One celebration is called the “City Dionysia” or “Great Dionysia.” It is usually celebrated in the late March through early April, in Greece. During the festival, Greeks sing and dress up. Also, they sacrificed many goats to honor the gods. A large amount of wine is consumed in the celebration. On the first day of the festival, people carry the statue of Dionysus from the temple to the Theatre. Contestants compete with each other’s performance of their plays until they find a winner. This festival is commonly celebrated for three days.

There are also other festivals including the Lessor or Rural Dionysia, the Anthesteria, the Lenaea, and the “Dirty Monday.” “Dirty Monday” has been celebrated for many centuries if not millennia. It is held in Tyrnavos, Greece. The celebration is to honor the worship of Dionysus. Annually, on “Ash Monday,” the city is packed with participants, spectators, and tourists.

Conclusion

Dionysus was the only god who was expressly known as the god of grapevines, viticulture, and drama. He is mostly described as a drunken, selfish, bold, and patient man. His symbolisms are perfectly matched with our contemporary cultivation of grapes and winemaking. In addition, Dionysus is an immortal god who was born from his father’s thigh. Uniquely, he was the only god with a mortal parent and had the ability to bring the dead back to life. Overall, his journeys throughout the world made many people learn from their mistakes and offered a multitude of moral lessons.

Works Cited

DIONYSUS : Summary of the Olympian God, www.theoi.com/Summary/Dionysos.html.

Bacchus – Roman God of Wine – Crystalinks, www.crystalinks.com/bacchus.html.

“ARIADNE.” ARIADNE – Greek Goddess Wife of Dionysus (Roman Libera), www.theoi.com/Georgikos/Ariadne.html.

Britannica, The Editors of Encyclopaedia. “Dionysus.” Encyclopædia Britannica, Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., 7 Feb. 2018, www.britannica.com/topic/Dionysus.

“DIONYSOS LOVES.” DIONYSUS MYTHS 4 LOVES – Greek Mythology, www.theoi.com/Olympios/DionysosLoves.html#Aphrodite.

“DIONYSUS – Greek God of Wine & Festivity.” Theoi Greek Mythology, www.theoi.com/Olympios/Dionysos.html#Attributes.

“Dionysus.” Greek Mythology, www.greekmythology.com/Other_Gods/Dionysus/dionysus.html.

“Dionysus.” Dionysus ***, www.talesbeyondbelief.com/greek-gods/dionysus.htm.

“Dionysus • Facts and Information on Greek God Dionysus.” Greek Gods & Goddesses, greekgodsandgoddesses.net/gods/dionysus/.

“Dionysus, the God of Wine, Fertility and Theater.” Symbols and Their Meanings – Mythology and Gods – Mythical Creatures, 12 Jan. 2018, mythologian.net/dionysus-the-god-of-wine-fertility-and-theater/.

“Dionysus, the Greek God of Wine in Greek Mythology.” Greek Gods, www.greek-gods.info/greek-gods/dionysus/#dionysus-symbols.

“The Festival of Dionysus: The Origins of Ancient Greek Theater.” Bright Hub Education, 6 Jan. 2012, www.brighthubeducation.com/homework-help-literature/64195-festival-of-dionysus/.

“Greek Mythology.” Ducksters Educational Site, www.ducksters.com/history/ancient_greece/dionysus.php.

“Greek Myths: Have You Met Dionysus, God of Wine?” TripSavvy, www.tripsavvy.com/greek-mythology-dionysus-1525977.

“Greek Stories about Dionysus-Midas and the Touch of Gold.” Greek Gods, www.greek-gods.info/greek-gods/dionysus/myths/midas-touch-of-gold/.

“Symbols and Icons of Dionysos.” The Dionysian Artist, 25 Oct. 2016, dionysianartist.wordpress.com/2016/10/24/symbols-and-icons-of-dionysos/.

“The Wanderings of Dionysus.” Greek Mythology, www.greekmythology.com/Myths/The_Myths/The_Wanderings_of_Dionysus/the_wanderings_of_dionysus.html.

“Dionysus (Bacchus, the Wanderer).” Dionysus, God of Wine, Festivals and Pleasure, the Wanderer – Greek Gods, www.greek-gods.org/olympian-gods/dionysus.php.

 

Angkor Empire Civilization

Venghour Than

April 1st, 2017

Literacy D

The Golden Age of Cambodia History

Research Synthesis

          Civilizations always approach to the world with a thrilling view and curiosity of  phenomenon culture, including attractive arts, aesthetic architectures, strange religion and systematic social structure that are stained on the page under the title of “History.” Most of all, one of the conspicuous civilization in Southeast Asia is the Great Angkor Empire, known as the Golden Age. This is one of the civilizations that is shown the most brightness of its culture with a vast believing in many religions such as Hinduism and Buddhism and the extension of its territory throughout Southeast Asia. This civilization is the most memorable era in Cambodians and people’s mind.

         Angkor Wat is the greatest legacy left from the Great Angkor Empire. This gigantic architecture was built up to dedicate to the god Vishnu which is a Hindu god, but there was an abundance of changes of religion believing throughout Cambodian history timeline. According to the Smile of Angkor information, there are four changes and transformation of religions throughout many different reigns of Kings. During the 9th century until 12th century, the religion was Hinduism under the reign of King Suryavarman II. Additionally, in the reign of King Suryavarman II, Angkor Wat Temple building project was started. Afterward, the end of the 12th century, King Jayavarman VII, the new ruler also known as the greatest skilled and most memorable king of Cambodia made a switch to Mahayana Buddhism. At this point of information, there are many temples built up with the implementation of Buddhist statues instead of Hindu statues. Then, at the beginning of the 13th century, the religion experienced a brief reversal to Hinduism (Shivaism), but at the end of this century, there was a second form of Buddhism, known as the Theravada Buddhism. Not to mention, Neak Ta is a type of religions that is a part of Cambodian’s practices too, it is about the respect to the guardians of the land and water. So, there were a lot of changes of religions during the Khmer Empire and consequently affect Cambodian’s practices and festivals annually with a mixture of Hinduism, Buddhism and Neak Ta.

          During the Golden Age of Angkor Empire, many temples were built claiming with a specific reason. As stated earlier, Angkor Wat Temple is one of the greatest legacies all around the world and Cambodia that took about three decades to accomplish, but there are many other ancient temples, pagodas and sites constructed with gorgeous, inspirational arts, rock carvings and amazing building structures in many different regions. Bayon Temple is one of the most prominent temples in Cambodia with enormous faces that express the wonderful states of mind, which are Kindness, Compassion, Sympathetic, Joy and Equanimity (Darith Touch, Religions of Angkor, http://smiles-of-angkor.com). As a matter of fact, Cambodia has 4000 ancient temples and sites, but only 2000 of them had been found. The information of Khmerization stated that “There are 2603 temples and sites have been visited in 18 provinces and towns. Among the 2603 sites visited, 766 of them are temples, 996 are ancient tombs, 487 are ancient pagodas, 89 are ancient bridges and 265 are ancient walls and ancient sites.” This clearly shows how appreciable Angkor Empire is that it contains with many ancient sites and buildings with aesthetic arts and sculptures. Therefore, massive, blow minding architectures are taking a long time to construct, but they always come with the beautiful and enjoyable view.

        As always there are many collapsing moments of civilization in the world history such as Akkadian Empire, Hittite Empire, Mycenaean Greece and Angkor Empire. In the 14th century, Angkor Empire suffered a tragic moment and steady decline. Regretfully, this civilization declined in the 15th century. There are many curious and acquiescent aspects claiming about this big settlement of this Angkor Empire. In addition, according to the article of Wikipedia claimed confidently that “Historians have proposed different causes for the decline: the religious conversion from Vishnuite-Shivaite Hinduism to Theravada Buddhism that affected social and political systems, incessant internal power struggles among Khmer princes, vassal revolt, foreign invasion, plague, and ecological breakdown.” In detail, there were many opinions and events which are might cause this devastated, collapsing civilization that there are many neighboring kingdoms were taking control of Cambodia, for example, the Thai Kingdom and Dai Viet, known as Vietnam. Also the calamity of religious divisions between nations which are Hinduism and Buddhism. Moreover, the lack of control and power of the Angkorian kings which made a union of nations and territory were breaking apart to other nations.

           To conclude, as many believe that Angkor Empire is the best civilization that emerges to Earth planet. Also, throughout the information and evidence stated in this research clearly shows how great Angkor Empire is of displaying many best arts on the temples, specifically Angkor Wat temple and amazing construction structures of temples and different king reigns in the history which are really entertaining and fascinating. Sadly, this powerful empire declined with unrecognizable effects that left many great legacies to next generation.

Work Cited

Stark, M.T. (2006). From Funan to Angkor: Collapse and regeneration in ancient Cambodia. After collapse: The regeneration of complex societies. Pp.144-167.

“Khmer Empire.” Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 01 Apr. 2017. Web. 02 Apr. 2017.

“Religions of Angkor.” Religions of Angkor|Smiles of Angkor. Web. 02 Apr. 2017.

Khmerization. “Cambodia Has 4,000 Ancient Temples and 2,000 Have Been Found and Located.” Khmerization. 01 Jan. 1970. Web. 02 Apr. 2017.

 

Literacy – Coming of Age Narrative Essay

          Generally, since the beginning of the literacy class until now, it has been covering up a lot of small lessons which are encompassing our narrative writing.  Through the studies of mini lessons, I learned and review about grammar, especially sentence structure and parallel structure. Furthermore, our literacy facilitator, Cara expressly taught us about punctuation including semicolon, comma usage using with subordinate conjunctions. Also, I understood about the connotation and denotation; it was really interesting to observe how words can define in other meanings that are totally figurative instead of literal.

          All of these listed foundation were helping us to be creative with writing the essay. The narrative essay I wrote was about my identity and it was really challenging and risk-taking to describe my identity because at the first time, I wouldn’t believe, I’ll decide to write this. The importance of writing the essay about my identity is that I need to stand my ground. I must be strong and confident with what I was stating in the writing to the audience with good evidence or meaningful and related moments as possible. Most of all, I’m in love with writing about my fantastic and beautiful paper.

         The bold sentences below are my spotlights of my coming of age essay, and the title called “What an Unexpected Coming of Age.” I hope that it will approach and grab your attention of having a great desire to read my whole essay (Link) in your worthy time. My friends and I have been working on this essay for about seven weeks through writing many drafts, editing, and self-checking. The spotlights of my essay will be able to illuminate you with concise information of the whole, actual writing.

If war is holy and sex is obscene, then we got it twisted in this lucid dream.” Dr. Martin Luther King inspired me, growing up as a young boy that felt different. […]

[…] He was laughing and turned to face me. “Hey! You’re gay!” I was shocked. I was lost in a deep, black hole. I got off the table immediately, ran to the house, and locked myself in the bathroom. I burst into tears and cried so hard, I was hyperventilating. This wasn’t the first time this had happened. Later on, I heard a knock from someone in front of the door. “Bong, I’m sorry.” […]

After being confronted by my close friend, I experienced a period of depression and confusion about my identity. I did not know how to feel and then one day, something very unexpected happened; I was attracted to a boy. […]

[…] I am now ready and comfortable with the person I am. I learned to forgive and provide second chance for myself and others, especially my one and only best friend. Also, learning to avoid the false statement about us because we’re the one who can shape our own path, describe who we really are, and conquer our own life with no hesitation.[…]

[…]  I’m bisexual.

Animal Farm

          On the last term of my fifth year in Liger, Claire, our literacy facilitator came up with a new, interesting lesson to all of us. It was “Animal Farm.” Personally, I was being enthusiastic about this last lesson with her since I used to test on it during my reading test. There were other students tested on this book too. “ Animal Farm” is a book written by George Orwell. This book reflect the tragic situation during the Soviet Union which was Russian Revolution.

          The book was giving us of a lot of tastes of life experiences that we can it’s an allegory of the Russian Revolution. The author was being really creative about the characters in the story with its unique name that can relate to other famous people in the history or relate to the characteristic of each character. There were Napoleon, Snowball, Old Major, and Squealer as the pig, Mr. Jones as the farmer, Boxer, Mollie, and Muriel as the horses, Benjamin as the donkey and many more. In description, this is a book describing a life of all animals in animal farm trying to fight back the farmer or human who always takes the product that they made. They made the seven amendments, planned for the war to fight back to the owner, and working harder for the new invention.

           All the students including me were really enjoying with the story, they were instantaneously responding where there were questions. This clearly showed the attractiveness of the story that approach audience with great detailed information. Also, there were some times in class, my friend, Niron and I were arguing with each other about the story, specifically about the Napoleon. We weren’t confront each other, but we tried to communicate and deliver our opinion. I thought that it was the remarkable time in literacy since we never had this kind of conversation in literacy class.

          I also had the most memorable highlight in this lesson with my teacher. While everybody followed Claire’s reading and when it came to the dialogue part in the story, she made each distinguish sound for each character. I can say, she was impersonating. Sometimes, it irked me positively since it caused me to laugh so hard which I couldn’t focus in class. Another highlight is answering all the questions she provided us as an assignments or discussion in class. I really love it, it helps me to enhance my comprehensions.

         Last, this is the last lesson that we learned with her and she’ll leave Liger with Liger great experience with her. We love her, she’s a great literacy facilitator because she pushed us so hard that sometimes we couldn’t hold find anything to hold like a wind tries to blow us. She helped us with her best effort. We wouldn’t be resilience without her offer to Liger. Back to Animal Farm, if you want practice or try to improve your understand and elaborate your idea about this story, here are some of the topics.

  1. The Contrast of Animal Farm After the Battle of Cowshed
  2. Allegorical Meaning of Animals
  3. Similarities and Differences Between Lenin’s and Old Major’s Speech
  4. What’s in the Name of the Characters

Introduction of Coming of Age

          Have you been through coming of age? This was the question raised up on the first unit of our literacy. Our new literacy facilitator, Cara Shelton, was guiding us through this section expressly because it was a new concept of learning for us. The final product of this first learning section is to write a narrative essay about our coming of age. I thought, it was feeling fantastic and nervous simultaneously because I was never digging through my past of determining the right, specific moment that clearly demonstrates my coming of age.

           Right before starting to write the essay, we’ve been searching about the rite of passages around the world. Everybody was assigned to a country with an amazing and terrifying rite of passage or coming of age. For example, I was on a research of the Ethiopian coming of age called “Hamar Cow Jumpy.” This was a really interesting coming age where men have to jump over the castrated, male cow for times. It is a representation of men leaving their childhood behind and continuing their ways to adulthood. They will be able to own many properties and marry. As my reflection about this coming of age showed, it is really dangerous to have this practice, but we have to respect the culture.

          If you like to learn about other rites of passages, you are welcoming to click on this website:  13 Amazing Coming of Age Traditions

 

The Golden Age of Cambodia History

Venghour Than

April 1st, 2017

Literacy D

The Golden Age of Cambodia History

Research Synthesis

          Civilizations always approach to the world with a thrilling view and curiosity of  phenomenon culture, including attractive arts, aesthetic architectures, strange religion and systematic social structure that are stained on the page under the title of “History.” Most of all, one of the conspicuous civilization in Southeast Asia is the Great Angkor Empire, known as the Golden Age. This is one of the civilizations that is showed the most brightness of its culture with a vast believing in many religions such as Hinduism and Buddhism and the extension of its territory throughout Southeast Asia. This civilization is the most memorable era in Cambodians and people’s mind.

          Angkor Wat is a greatest legacy left from the Great Angkor Empire. This gigantic architecture was built up to dedicate to the god Vishnu which is a Hindu god, but there was an abundance of changes of religion believings throughout Cambodian history timeline. According to the Smile of Angkor information, there are four changes and transformation of religions throughout many different reigns of Kings. During the 9th century until 12th century, the religion was Hinduism under the reign of King Suryavarman II. Additionally, in the reign of King Suryavarman II, Angkor Wat Temple building project was started. Afterward, the end of the 12th century, King Jayavarman VII, the new ruler also known as the greatest skilled and most memorable king of Cambodia made a switch to Mahayana Buddhism. At this point of information, there are many temples built up with the implementation of Buddhist statues instead of Hindu statues. Then, at the beginning of the 13th century, the religion experienced a brief reversal to Hinduism (Shivaism), but at the end of this century, there was a second form of Buddhism, known as the Theravada Buddhism. Not to mention, Neak Ta is type of religions that is a part of Cambodian’s practices too, it is about the respect to the guardians of the land and water. So, there were a lot of changes of religions during the Khmer Empire and consequently affect Cambodian’s practices and festivals annually with a mixed of Hinduism, Buddhism and Neak Ta.

          During the Golden Age of Angkor Empire, many temples were built claiming with a specific reason. As stated earlier, Angkor Wat Temple is one of the greatest legacy all around the world and Cambodia that took about three decades to accomplish, but there are many other ancient temples, pagodas and sites constructed with gorgeous, inspirational arts, rock carvings and amazing building structures in many different regions. Bayon Temple is one of the most prominent temples in Cambodia with enormous faces that express the wonderful states of mind, which are Kindness, Compassion, Sympathetic, Joy and Equanimity (Darith Touch, Religions of Angkor, http://smiles-of-angkor.com). As a matter of fact, Cambodia has 4000 ancient temples and sites, but only 2000 of them had been found. The information of Khmerization stated that “There are 2603 temples and sites have been visited in 18 provinces and towns. Among the 2603 sites visited, 766 of them are temples, 996 are ancient tombs, 487 are ancient pagodas, 89 are ancient bridges and 265 are ancient walls and ancient sites.” This clearly shows how appreciable Angkor Empire is that it contains with many ancient sites and buildings with aesthetic arts and sculptures. Therefore, massive, blow minding architectures are taking a long time to construct, but they always come with beautiful and enjoyable view.

           As always there are many collapsing moment of civilization in the world history such as Akkadian Empire, Hittite Empire, Mycenaean Greece and Angkor Empire. In the 14th century, Angkor Empire suffered in a tragic moment and steady decline. Regretfully, this civilization declined in the 15th century. There are many curiosity and acquiescent aspects claiming about this big settlement of this Angkor Empire. In addition, according to the article of Wikipedia claimed confidently that “Historians have proposed different causes for the decline: the religious conversion from Vishnuite-Shivaite Hinduism to Theravada Buddhism that affected social and political systems, incessant internal power struggles among Khmer princes, vassal revolt, foreign invasion, plague, and ecological breakdown.” In detail, there were many opinions and events which are might cause this devastated, collapsing civilization that there are many neighboring kingdoms were taking control of Cambodia, for example, Thai Kingdom and Dai Viet, known as Vietnam. Also the calamity of religion divisions between nations which are Hinduism and Buddhism. Moreover, the lack of control and power of the Angkorian kings which made union of nations and territory were breaking apart to other nations.

          To conclude, as many believe that Angkor Empire is the best civilization that emerge to Earth planet. Also, throughout the information and evidences stated in this research clearly shows how great Angkor Empire is of displaying many best arts on the temples, specifically Angkor Wat temple and amazing construction structures of temples and different king reigns in the history which are really entertaining and fascinating. Sadly, this powerful empire declined with unsuspectable and unrecognizable effects that left many great legacy to next generation.

Work Cited

Stark, M.T. (2006). From Funan to Angkor: Collapse and regeneration in ancient Cambodia. After collapse: The regeneration of complex societies. Pp.144-167.

“Khmer Empire.” Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 01 Apr. 2017. Web. 02 Apr. 2017.

“Religions of Angkor.” Religions of Angkor|Smiles of Angkor. Web. 02 Apr. 2017.

Khmerization. “Cambodia Has 4,000 Ancient Temples and 2,000 Have Been Found and Located.” Khmerization. 01 Jan. 1970. Web. 02 Apr. 2017.

 

Is Someone Your Identical?

Growing up in a family inspired by reading and writing has came through my spirit. My father is a government officer; therefore, he reads and writes a lot of paper works. Even my grandfather, great grandfather read and wrote a lot. In literacy, I inspire myself by reading and writing in a creative way. Poem is my most favorite section in literacy. Poem is something that you’re never make mistakes while you’re writing. It’s the most creative and fun way to learn and playing around with my literacy skill.

During my literacy class, we started to learn about poem with a deeper concept. We looked through many examples of poem from others by websites of trying to find many poetic devices as much as possible. It was kind of challenging for me, personally because I think I would learn the poetic devices that detailed, but simultaneously, it’s really entertaining. If you want to know what I learn about poem in class please visit this website: https://sway.com/paJtvRh7u7RIo3aB

Beside learning about those poetic devices and examples, we did write our own poem for the preparation of poetry slam. It will be graded, therefore, I want to write my poem to the best of my ability. I listed down many topics that I could write while trying to think the poetic devices that stood out for me the most. I chose to write about my best friend and my most favorite singer, Ariana Grande of how are we similar between each other, and here it is!

Have you ever think of someone is your identical?

Dancing

Singing

Crying

And sometimes asking each other for noodle

It’s like a souvenir that god gave us to stay together

Even Though it’s a challenge or fantastic luck… It doesn’t matter

We’re staying for each other

We’re staying for each other

We’re staying for each other

It keeps repeating..!

 

Have you ever give up on someone is your identical?

No!

If Yes?

It’s like a lonely leaf is starting to fall

Your Charming,

Adoring, Endearing partner never letting it happens

It’s so comfy that someone confort your moment

You have to be strong

Cause each of you is each other component.

Is like ices were stuck and frozen

 

Have you ever be honest with your identical?

Oh jesus!

It’s very difficult to answer

Most of all

But just know your heart and what you say are true

That you hurt for the pain your partner had been through

If you don’t believe

let the light be the happy way to guide you

To be able of letting you get through

In order to let your legs hustle as the cheetah moves

Is that right?

 

Have you every hear “Ow! That’s hurt!” from your identical?

What the heck?

You don’t know for sure whether the pain is

Physical or Nonphysical

It’s doesn’t matter though..

Because there’s a million of cruel thorns poke into your partner’s heart

It’s painfully

Hardly

Dangerously cracking a part

Don’t be like this, I’ll make you into a colorful art

That is looking nice and sweet like a Pop Tart.

 

Have you every had a memory with your identical?

Of course There’s a ton of them!

Like small bricks build up the wall.

Eating icecream, dancing in a team, think about crazy stuff like a daydream,  

Film a video like a hollywood scene, wash dishes until it’s clean, passion about marine

And further than that, set up a plan to go to American as our next thing

But the present make us walk without worry of anything

Like a wind!

Have you ever blame or be mad to your identical?

I mean, Cursing,

Hitting,

Staring sharply at your partner like an evil doll

Your partner says “STOP!” but you don’t listen at all

You just continue and ignore like a rolling ball

Your partner’s eyeball

Like a fire

Like a fire

As the nuclear ball starts to fall

 

Have you ever feel lonely with your identical?

It’s like you’re in a spooky

Scary

Shadow with the darkest rainfall

But the glimpse of optimism inside you never settling down

It’s permanently never shutting down

Up,

Down,

Up,

Down

And I for the last word Never Let You Down.

 

Pygmalion

 

          In 2016, the new literacy class is focusing on writing and reading firmly since all the senior students are approaching high school. Our new literacy facilitator, Claire introduces us to a new learning concept by reading and writing about a play called “Pygmalion” by George Bernard Shaw. My friends and I were happily starting to learn this new lessons. Most of us didn’t know and hadn’t heard what was the play about.

          The play was projecting a lifestyle and self-determination of a flower girl, Eliza, who sold flowers in Covent Garden transform her external identities and internal identities by changing her cockney accent to a normal English accent with Professor Henry Higgins. Eliza is a poor, confident, self-respect and self-defense person during that community. Throughout the learning session, we used a new learning style by enhancing our comprehension called “Readers Notes Section.” It was a document that keeps tracking of what we learned in the play. This helped us to comprehend the play by asking questions about the plots, characters, settings, and the interaction between the characters and the plots.

          In addition, we also made final products that can demonstrate our understanding relevant to the play which we learned about. It almost happened with every classes, there’s always final products that can display as a handbook or poster, a presentation and a skit. It helped everybody learned and teacher to criticize our knowledge towards the lesson concept.

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          My first product of “Pygmalion” play was making a book that explained about the characteristics of the two main characters and their interaction which were Eliza Doolittle and Professor Henry Higgins. This was the product that my friend and I made, also there were other students making their products, such as: games, presentations, and posters. All of these final product was shared to the junior students that helped us to build a closed relationship and share all the knowledge that we had to them.

          The second product was writing an argument essay focusing on the the transformation of Eliza’s identity. It was one of my most challenging moment in literacy class because it was the first time that I started to think concisely about the words which I put in the essay. Furthermore, it wasn’t just an essay that we wrote, it was a form of writing which allowed us to be creative with our thoughts and also to be organized with our works. This is the essay that I wrote and it’ll be nice if you give a personal opinion and comment to me for this essay.

Name: Venghour

Date: November 17th, 2o16

Class: D

          Can identity change a woman further than her appearance? A flower girl, Eliza Doolittle, is the main character in the play “Pygmalion,” written by an author named George Bernard Shaw. Eliza transforms from a flower girl who is selling flowers at Covent Garden to a proper lady by learning in Professor Higgins’s laboratory is the expert of phonics. Although, how Eliza is looking is a huge difference from her original external identity, but it doesn’t mean her internal identity is evolving.   

          In Covent Garden, Eliza is a flower girl that had a lack of education, but she is a girl who is self-defence. Although, throughout the play her costume is changing but her self-defending is still maintained. Eliza has tried to defend herself in Act I with a bystander about talking with a gentleman. She tries to show that, although she’s a lower class and not a wealthy person, she still can talk to anyone she wants. She says, “I ain’t done nothing wrong by speaking to the gentleman. I’ve a right to sell flowers if I keep off the kerb” (Page 11). This quote means that Eliza is talking to a gentleman, but she got distracted by the bystanders to keep her awareness of talking to the high-class man. But she replied in her confidence that she had a right to talk to anyone and sell her flowers there. This clearly shows how she tries to defend with other bystanders for herself. Further than that, she’s a confident girl who does everything to make herself are right and special.

           After, it seems like there are a lot of new updates and improvement from Eliza through her experience learning in Professor Higgins laboratory. Such as: costuming, speaking accent and proper behavior. Yet, she still remains the defending for her self-insurance and self-decision. At the end of the play Eliza wasn’t married to Professor Higgins instead she was married to Freddy, a man shown in the beginning of Act I. The quote states, “Eliza did not want to be the second interest to him, with his research into phonetics being his first love and passion” (Page )From this quote, we can tell that Eliza had a strong thinking of her decision for her life by refusing to marry Professor Higgins. She doesn’t want to be the second interest to Higgins, she wants to be a special person that could be meaningful to her future husband. This demonstrates how she still had a strong self-defending and making her own decision of choosing her personal soulmate to be a part of her life.

          In closing, Eliza is still maintaining her internal identity in the fact of self-defending. Although, her external identity is changing while her internal identity strongly remains. The evidence from the beginning until the end of the Act is strongly agreed and prove the claim from the start. According to the defense of making her own decision to get married to someone and talking to people and selling flowers in Covent Garden. Eliza is still maintaining her self-defending, self-decision and self-insurance from the beginning until the end.

 

Crossover Book Level X

The start of my first year at school 2012 I read the books with my literacy teacher in Level D. Every year there always a reading test happened. It is about testing the students ability of reading can they continue to a higher level or not. From 2012 till 2016 I increased 20 levels start from Level D to Level X. In Level X everything new for me because I get the new reading members and our book is strange too. The book in Level X that we read are written poem and the book named “Crossover”. For myself I love this book so much because this book is mostly talking about basketball. This book teaches me new things such as complex and technical words, diseases and how to take care yourself. The book is talking about one family that have four members are Mom, Dad, JB and Josh. Josh and JB are identical twin and their Dad is used to be a professional basketball player named “Da Man.” Dad is the one that always tells the rules and share his wisdom to his kids all the time but he has the diseases are Patellar Tendonitis and the heart attack because of playing basketball and serving food unhealthily. So this book is written by “Kwame Alexander.”
Go to read this book now I’m sure that it’ll touch your feeling.
Crossover

I Go to an Unusual School

Name: Venghour
Class: D
Date: 9/10/15
I go to an unusual school. This school gives Cambodian kids an opportunity to a brighter future. This school is called Liger Learning Center. The Liger Learning Center (LLC) has 50 students. In this school there are a lot of subjects, such as math, khmer, literacy, exploration, expertise. One of the Liger’s cool projects is called Independent Discovery (ID). Independent Discovery means creating our own project, for example: my independent project is about Experts of Cambodian art. Everyday I try to find the information and find some pictures to draw for my project. Also this school is different from other schools by letting students have a chance to do an experience and learn outside the school. So it’s the best opportunity for students to know a lot of things about the outside world.
I think this unusual school is one of the best school I ever learn. Also this school gives me a lot of opportunity to go outside for a study trip. It’s an unbelievable school that have in Cambodia and helping kids for a brighter future.