LLA HIV Workshop

Do you know what is HIV or AIDS? Are they the same? Is it actually true people die from HIV? On the 28th of March, 2018, a group of students from one of our school explorations studies about HIV/AIDS hosted a workshop. The whole workshop was phenomenal and very informational. HIV and AIDS are common diseases in Cambodia with high population.  In 2016, about 71,000 Cambodians are living with HIV; About 1,800 to 2,900 people died annually from this virus. For the HIV treatment providing, only 57,000 Cambodians are on the treatment. It is major problem which devastates the entire nation and it is very important for all of us to improve the educational system in order to distribute the words to people since knowledge of HIV prevention among young people age 15-24 is only 39.6%. 

I am very interested in this specific topic and happy that I could join the workshop because HIV and AIDS problems should be the topics that needed discussion from people the same as the other plights. After joining this workshop, I have learned and comprehend many aspects of the scientific side of the HIV/AIDs and the social perspectives on HIV/AIDS: stigmatization, stereotypes, and discrimination. Additionally, I have not learned HIV/AIDS expressly and this workshop was actually an amazing start for me. 

The whole workshop was divided into four distinguished sessions. Each session was sharing a different topic that was related to HIV/AIDS. The first session was about the introduction of HIV and AIDS. So, HIV is standing for “Human Immunodeficiency Virus” and AID is standing for “Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome.” Both of them are totally a different thing. Many people have confused that HIV and AIDS are the same things, but they are not.  HIV is a virus which is an invader virus from the chimpanzees. In our immune system, there are T-helper cells. Its significant role is to alert all the other cells to fight the infectious bacteria or diseases. But what the HIV virus does is it infected us through our body then our cells. The HIV virus will replicate itself inside the cells and continuously attack the T-helper cells.  Therefore, our immune system will be weak. Consequently, there will be many collections of infectious diseases known as AIDs. This is meaning that “people do not die because of HIV, they die because of the diseases that enter the body because of AIDS” 

In session two, I learned about HIV/AIDS-Related Stigma and Discrimination. The session began with questions for the brainstorming: What stigmas exist against people living with HIV/AIDS, Do you know anyone who is HIV-positive who has experienced stigmatization or discrimination, Where do these stigmas/stereotypes of people living with HIV come from? It was a fruitful discussion among all the participants. Stigma or discrimination against the people who have HIV or AIDS is actually issuing many adverse effects as the picture is shown below. 


For the third and last sessions, I comprehend about the transmission/prevention and the treatment. People can be infected with HIV in a variety of situations. If you look at the picture down below, the main reason for receiving HIV is practicing an unprotected sexual intercourse along with the other corner reasons. Eventually, the person who is infected with HIV will have STI (Sexually Transmitted Infection) which is an infection passes through sexual contact, especially vaginal intercourse, anal/oral sex. With high chance, STI can develop to STD and it stands for “Sex Transmitted Disease.” The treatment for HIV patients is extremely complicated and challenging. There are 80% of people are living with HIV are on ART. ART is a treatment with the combination of different of ARVs (treatment that is used to reduce HIV in the body) that cease the replication of HIV. The treatment is divided into three lines.  In simple words, the HIV patients will start off with the first line treatment, but when the body starts to develop the resistance, it means that they have to continue to the second line treatments. As mentioned, taking HIV treatment is extremely difficult. There are HIV people who confront this challenge of not seeking for treatment for fear of discrimination from their families, friends, community, co-workers, bosses. Some people said, “I dare not go. I am too afraid.” 

Overall, this workshop is incredible; it teaches many of us including myself. I have learned a lot than before and for sure, creating awareness and normalizing this problem are essential because most of the population has deemed people who have HIV/AIDS as weak characters with lack of abilities and capabilities in their entire lives. Therefore, it is the right time for me and you to start this adventure together in order to discredit all of those lies and educate people in order to prevent this struggle. 

Greek Mythology – DIONYSUS, the god of viticulture

This is the research paper that I wrote during Literacy class on Unit 4, Ancient Civilization. I hope you enjoy and simultaneously learn about all the incredible Greek god mythology and the personality of the god. 

Image result for dionysusDIONYSUS

God of Wine and Grapes

Gender: Male

Rule Over: Grape Harvest, Wine Making, of Ritual Madness, Religious Ecstasy, and Theater

Names: Acratophorus, Acroreites, Adoneus, Aegobolus, etc.

Consort: Ariadne

Dionysus is one of the last Olympian gods who was best known as the god of viticulture, fertility, and drama in ancient Greek religion and mythology. He was worshipped in the early 1500-100 BC by Mycenaean Greeks. Although it is uncertain where Dionysus’ cult originated, he is often depicted as having foreign origins in the Legend. Most of the time, Dionysus was referred to as “Bacchus.”  

Throughout Greek mythology, there are many remarkable stories about him as a child and in his adulthood. There was his unusual birth to his journey of rescuing another princess, and the stories with other main gods and goddesses. The journey of Dionysus was filled with happiness, devastation, jealousy, hypocrisy, and regret.

Dionysus married a princess named Ariadne who was from another kingdom and they had four children: Oenopion, Thoas, Staphylos, and Peparethus. In addition, he had many family members, including his parents, Zeus and Semele. He had a lot of siblings – a total of 14 – who are included in the following table:

Ares God of war
Athena Goddess of wisdom and military victory
Apollo God of many things (music, poetry, art, oracles, archery, plague, medicine, sun, light, and knowledge)
Artemis Goddess of hunt
Aphrodite Goddess of love, beauty, and eternal youth
Hebe God of youth
Hermes Messenger of the gods, god of trade, thieves, travelers, sports, athletes, border crossings, guide to the Underworld
Heracles God of strength, heroes, sports, athletes, health, agriculture, fertility, trade, oracles and divine protector of mankind
Helen of Troy The most beautiful woman in the world who was married to King Menelaus of Sparta
Hephaestus God of fire, metalworking, stone masonry, forges, the art of sculpture, and blacksmiths
Perseus The legendary founder of Mycenae
Minos The first King of Crete
The Muses Goddesses of literature, science, and the arts
The Graces Goddesses of charm, beauty, nature, human creativity, and fertility, together known as the Charites

Dionysus Mythology

  • Birth

Dionysus was the son of Zeus, the god of thunder, and Semele, a human; he is the only god who had a mortal parent. Late at night, Zeus went to Semele, the princess of Thebes. She could see his physical appearance, but she could feel Zeus’ divine presence. Semele felt pleasure and was pleased to be a lover of the god, even though she had no clue which god it was. Later on, Semele became pregnant. The fact that Semele was pregnant was heard by Hera, the goddess of women, marriage, family, and childbirth. She was also designated as the “former” wife of Zeus. Out of jealousy, Hera went to Semele and planted seeds of doubt into Semele’s head, which made her doubt her husband’s appearance. When Zeus visited her again, Semele demanded he grant her a request at the River Styx. Afterwards, she asked Zeus to reveal his true form. Zeus was feeling struggled, but he decided to show her anyway. At that moment, Semele was burnt down to a crisp due to the power of Zeus’s glory.

However, Zeus was able to rescue the fetus of Dionysus inside Semele’s stomach. He stitched the fetus inside his thigh until it was born. Once Dionysus was born, he was instantaneously conferred as an immortal god. But Hera was jealous of the fact that Dionysus was still alive. Therefore, she ordered Titans, the deities who preceded the Olympians, to kill him. But, his death did not last; right after Dionysus’s death, Rhea, Zeus’s mother, brought him back to life. Dionysus was eventually raised at Mount Nysa by Hermes.

  • The Discovery of Wine/ The Wandering of Dionysus

During his childhood at Mount Nysa, Dionysus discovered grapevines. After he received the infliction of madness from Hera, he started to wander around the world. He went to Aigyptos (Egypt) and Syria with the main purpose of distributing his culture of grapevines. During his journey, he was confronted with many obstacles in many different places.

Once Dionysus was confronted by pirates while he was walking back to his home place, Thebes. The pirates saw his appearance as a young rich man. Then, the pirates besieged him and brought him to their ship. The crew tied a rope around his body, but it kept falling apart. After many tries, the crew realized that Dionysus was a god because only the gods had this kind of superpower. The helmsman thought that he should release Dionysus, but the sailor did not obey. Instead, the sailor started to sail the ship. Unfortunately, the ship did not move and it started to overgrow with vines. Dionysus then transformed himself into a lion and began to chase all the crewmen. Afterward, he transformed himself into a dolphin and leaped overboard.

  • Midas and the Touch of Gold

Another myth describes the story of Dionysus finding out that he lost his schoolmaster and foster father, Silenus. Silenus was a drunken man who had a strong addiction to alcohol. He wandered around until one day he was found by some peasants. They brought him to the kingdom of King Midas. He was welcomed and fulfilled with many foods and entertainment for ten days. On the eleventh day, King Midas brought Silenus back to Dionysus.

Dionysus felt pleasure and gratitude to King Midas. In return, he offered Midas his choice of whatever he wanted. King Midas decided that whatever he touched, it must be turned to gold. Dionysus was feeling conflicted with giving him the offer, thinking he should make a less greedy choice. But King Midas was really enthusiastic about his new power. He touched oak twigs and they turned to gold. Overjoyed, he ordered the servants to bring him food, but when he touched the food, everything turned into gold. Midas was really depressed; he regretted the decision he made. He begged Dionysus to take back the offer. Dionysus told him to wash his hands in the river Pactolus. Once his hands touched the water, the whole river turned to gold.

  • Loves

Known also as the god of theatre, Dionysus had love relationships with many gods and goddesses. This means he was also a god of homosexuality (Homosexuality; Effeminacy; Cross-dressing). His first love was with Aphrodite; they were believed to have had a son named “Priapos.” In contrast, there is a myth in which Aphrodite is the lover of Zeus, which triggers Hera’s jealousy. In revenge, Hera turns their son, Priapos, into an ugly character.

His next lover was the daughter of Thestius and wife of Oeneus, Althaea. They had  a great relationship and had a daughter named “Deianeira.”

Afterward, Dionysus had a long-term relationship with a mortal lady, Ariadne. She was the princess and the daughter of King Minos of Krete (Crete). Unluckily, when she was visiting the island of Naxos, Theseus, the guard, abandoned her while she slept. Then, Dionysus discovered Ariadne. They married and ended up having four children: Oenopion, a legendary king of Chios who best known as “wine drinker”; Thomas (Unknown); Staphylos, one of several personages; and Peparethus, a demigod son.

Symbolism and Attributes

Thyrsos of DionysosDionysus had many symbols and attributes throughout Greek culture. The most distinctive attribute of his was the “Thyrsos,” a pine-cone-tipped staff. The pine cone represented birth. The Thyrsos was actually an object for Dionysus and followers to carry for enjoyment and comfort. It had a significant role of representing birth because Dionysus was also the god of fertility and would use it to stir the wine.

The other symbols and attributes of Dionysus were the Thyrsos-staff head, grapevines, drinking cup, and his wreath made out of ivy leaves. Specifically, the grapevines symbolically represent his association with life. The grapevine is a cultivated plant and the stages of grape vines represent Dionysus’s death and rebirth. The drinking cup represents the object holding the liquid of life. As mentioned earlier, Dionysus uses the Thyrsos to fill the cup with wine.

Thyrsos of DionysosGrapevine of DionysosDrinking-Cup of DionysosIvy-Wreath of Dionysos




Dionysus also had his sacred animal, a leopard, as his transportation. Most of Panther of Dionysosthe time, he was depicted as a character who was sitting on the leopard or had leopard-skin apparel on his body.


General Information

  • What was Dionysus god of?  

In Greek mythology, Dionysus was not only the god of grapevines and viticulture. As mentioned above, he was also the god of fertility, theatre, and homosexuality, but there is even more – he was a god of many things:  

  1. Wine, Fruit, and Drunkenness
  2. Parties and Festivities
  3. Madness and Insanity
  4. Wilderness vegetation and predators (big cats)
  5. Reincarnation and Afterlife (He had the ability to bring the dead back to life from the Underworld. He once traveled to the Underworld to bring his mother’s soul, Semele, back to the earth.)
  • Physical Appearance

Dionysus riding panther | Greek mosaic from Pella C4th B.C. | Pella Archaeological Museum

Dionysus was mostly depicted as a powerful and strong man. His appearance was usually seen as a young man imposed with a full head of dark hair and wearing a beard; sometimes, he was beardless. He had a wreath of ivy leaves on his head and he would hold the Thyrsus in his hand while riding on the leopard. To achieve his standard look, he was usually naked, but sometimes, he would put on his leopard-skin clothes.

  • Locations

Dionysus could be found at Mount Olympus, the highest mountain in Greece. It was also where his father lived. In addition, Mount Nysa was his home and was where he was raised as a child. There is a feeling of uncertainty about whether Mount Nysa really exists or if it is just a mythical, geographical location in Greek mythology – there is no real answer.

As Dionysus was of the god of nature, his temple or theatre is located everywhere around us. The theatre symbolically represented his expression, duality, nature, and cultivation. Additionally, Dionysus could be found in the woods because he was the god of nature and his followers worshipped his cult in the woods while other gods had their own temples.

  • Nowadays Celebration

Contemporarily, there are some festivals and celebrations celebrating Dionysus. One celebration is called the “City Dionysia” or “Great Dionysia.” It is usually celebrated in the late March through early April, in Greece. During the festival, Greeks sing and dress up. Also, they sacrificed many goats to honor the gods. A large amount of wine is consumed in the celebration. On the first day of the festival, people carry the statue of Dionysus from the temple to the Theatre. Contestants compete with each other’s performance of their plays until they find a winner. This festival is commonly celebrated for three days.

There are also other festivals including the Lessor or Rural Dionysia, the Anthesteria, the Lenaea, and the “Dirty Monday.” “Dirty Monday” has been celebrated for many centuries if not millennia. It is held in Tyrnavos, Greece. The celebration is to honor the worship of Dionysus. Annually, on “Ash Monday,” the city is packed with participants, spectators, and tourists.


Dionysus was the only god who was expressly known as the god of grapevines, viticulture, and drama. He is mostly described as a drunken, selfish, bold, and patient man. His symbolisms are perfectly matched with our contemporary cultivation of grapes and winemaking. In addition, Dionysus is an immortal god who was born from his father’s thigh. Uniquely, he was the only god with a mortal parent and had the ability to bring the dead back to life. Overall, his journeys throughout the world made many people learn from their mistakes and offered a multitude of moral lessons.

Works Cited

DIONYSUS : Summary of the Olympian God, www.theoi.com/Summary/Dionysos.html.

Bacchus – Roman God of Wine – Crystalinks, www.crystalinks.com/bacchus.html.

“ARIADNE.” ARIADNE – Greek Goddess Wife of Dionysus (Roman Libera), www.theoi.com/Georgikos/Ariadne.html.

Britannica, The Editors of Encyclopaedia. “Dionysus.” Encyclopædia Britannica, Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., 7 Feb. 2018, www.britannica.com/topic/Dionysus.

“DIONYSOS LOVES.” DIONYSUS MYTHS 4 LOVES – Greek Mythology, www.theoi.com/Olympios/DionysosLoves.html#Aphrodite.

“DIONYSUS – Greek God of Wine & Festivity.” Theoi Greek Mythology, www.theoi.com/Olympios/Dionysos.html#Attributes.

“Dionysus.” Greek Mythology, www.greekmythology.com/Other_Gods/Dionysus/dionysus.html.

“Dionysus.” Dionysus ***, www.talesbeyondbelief.com/greek-gods/dionysus.htm.

“Dionysus • Facts and Information on Greek God Dionysus.” Greek Gods & Goddesses, greekgodsandgoddesses.net/gods/dionysus/.

“Dionysus, the God of Wine, Fertility and Theater.” Symbols and Their Meanings – Mythology and Gods – Mythical Creatures, 12 Jan. 2018, mythologian.net/dionysus-the-god-of-wine-fertility-and-theater/.

“Dionysus, the Greek God of Wine in Greek Mythology.” Greek Gods, www.greek-gods.info/greek-gods/dionysus/#dionysus-symbols.

“The Festival of Dionysus: The Origins of Ancient Greek Theater.” Bright Hub Education, 6 Jan. 2012, www.brighthubeducation.com/homework-help-literature/64195-festival-of-dionysus/.

“Greek Mythology.” Ducksters Educational Site, www.ducksters.com/history/ancient_greece/dionysus.php.

“Greek Myths: Have You Met Dionysus, God of Wine?” TripSavvy, www.tripsavvy.com/greek-mythology-dionysus-1525977.

“Greek Stories about Dionysus-Midas and the Touch of Gold.” Greek Gods, www.greek-gods.info/greek-gods/dionysus/myths/midas-touch-of-gold/.

“Symbols and Icons of Dionysos.” The Dionysian Artist, 25 Oct. 2016, dionysianartist.wordpress.com/2016/10/24/symbols-and-icons-of-dionysos/.

“The Wanderings of Dionysus.” Greek Mythology, www.greekmythology.com/Myths/The_Myths/The_Wanderings_of_Dionysus/the_wanderings_of_dionysus.html.

“Dionysus (Bacchus, the Wanderer).” Dionysus, God of Wine, Festivals and Pleasure, the Wanderer – Greek Gods, www.greek-gods.org/olympian-gods/dionysus.php.


Another Long Trip – March – 8th – 13th

Here we go! This was another long trip from the first trip we had which was closed for one week. As always, we were making a lot of accomplishment from a long stay on the island. These are the overall activities we did:

  1. Built the concrete blocks for the marine artificial reef
  2. Making a triangular cluster as another alternative for marine organisms
  3. Deployed the first artificial reef in the first Marine Fisheries Management Area in Cambodia (MFMA)
  4. Conducted baseline surveys of their study site
  5. Beach Clean up and rubbish creativity
Pouring the mixture into the mold.

Building the concrete blocks was the start of the entire trip. We met Ricky, who was responsible for facilitating us through the entire process of the making those blocks. It was a tiring and fun task. We divided everyone into a small team with a different small task: chain team, cement team, and pebble team. All the LMRT members all began with the assembling of the concrete mold which would make six blocks at a time. Then, we went to our small teams doing the assigned task. In order to make the blocks, we mixed the cement with sand, pebbles, and water. After, we poured the mixture into the mold. We dried the blocks for about a day, but right before we took out the concrete blocks, we carved those with our names. All of these blocks will be deployed in the future an artificial reef for the marine biodiversity at Koh Seh. Simultaneously, it does have an important role in preventing an illegal fishing, trawling.

The finished blocks with our names!
Soliday and I learned how to tie some knots.

Right after finishing all the jobs with the blocks, we continued our duty to complete the make of cluster. As one of our members said, “[Cluster] is a triangular bamboo shelter with ropes dangling into the water.” This is another alternative to creating a habitat for the marine organisms besides the artificial reef (concrete blocks). We can say that cluster is a hand-made buoy; it can replace with the plastic one. Once we deployed the cluster, it will help to facilitate all the fish including the juveniles.

      We finished the cluster.

When we were done with both building projects, we are ready to deploy. This deploy is part of constructing the Marine Fisheries Management Area in Cambodia project (MFMA). MFMA is a huge project that Marine Conservation Cambodia (MCC) proposed to the government of creating a sustainable area or habitat and preventing all the illegal fishing for the Kep Archipelago. MCC chose various locations around the Archipelago to deploy the artificial reef on the GPS with the total of 47 spots. The clusters will be deployed into the ocean, used to mark the location of each plot, and connected to the deployed artificial reefs underwater. LMRT team has done a phenomenal work of helping to deploy one of the MFMA spots. Again, it is a tiring job, but we are happy and proud of everybody who involved since we are taking baby steps to change the world.

Our cluster has deployed!!








The spot we helped to deploy is our official surveying location for the LMRT team to study for the rest of the years here. We had been practicing all the three types of survey (fish, invertebrates, and substrates) since the last trip, and of course, we were ready to start this first official survey. It is a 100-meter survey with the blocks in the midway. Sadly, we missed two of our teammates because they were sick. We still had six people left, and it was perfect to divide into each survey. Soliday and I were the invertebrate teams; Sythong and Thiny were in the fish team; Kimseng and Lux were in the substrate team. As part of the survey, the fish had to go to first in the early morning to lay out the lines and start to survey because fish would be waking up and ready to find food. After, the invertebrate and substrate team go last.

Me! Gian strike!
LMRT learned how to use the underwater camera.

During my invertebrate survey, there was nothing found. We saw only some conch, urchins, sea stars, and sea hares. We would not expect to see many sea hares the surveying location; eventually, we decided to add sea hare as another species to our slate for the survey. The area was not sand instead silty, and there were not many fish and other organisms started to live there yet. For the entire trip, we got to survey three times for each. So, we got to have three replicates. Every night, we logged our dives and fill the data from the slates. As looking through the data, we are hopeful to see more organisms starting to live and the improvement of our benthic zone. In addition, we named our location as “Karen’s Reef.” We named to show our gratitude to Karen.

Substrate team was entering the data.
We did the “LMRT” design for our bungalow stair.

I would say it was one of my best trip here at the Koh Seh since I am very excited to see more lives at our Karen’s Reef. We did a lot of help our ocean and we are going to accomplish more. After participating in these small activities to save our ocean, it is very emotional for me somehow because I cannot imagine myself and others doing all of these to serve the ocean, our home. If you want to comprehend more about the MFMA, please click this link below.



Physics Research: Hedy Lamarr

To honor the greatest accomplishments by women in STEM, we, the students in physics class, did research on many talented ladies around the world in STEM field.  

Hedwig Eva Maria Kiesler

Actress, Inventor

BORN: 9th November, 1914

DIED: 19th January, 2000

Citizenship: Austria, United States of America (from 1953)

Stage name: Hedy Lamarr

Co-founder of the invention of Spread Spectrum Technology

Known during her time as the “Most Beautiful Girl in the World,” Hedy Lamarr emerged in the 1940s with her talented skills in film production. Besides her beautiful face, she also made an invention of new technology. The newly discovered invention was called “Spread Spectrum Technology,” also known for the Silver Screen Exploits. In contemporary times, this invention has assumed a major role in developing and manufacturing technology in the field of wireless communication.

Hedy Lamarr was born Hedwig Eva Maria Kiesler, on the 9th of November, 1914 in Vienna, Austria-Hungary. She was of Jewish descent and immigrated from Austria to the United States of America in 1937 to pursue a career in the filming industries. At the time of her immigration, Lamarr was a young, bright girl who was already showing her interest in and dream of becoming an actress.

Career Life Time

Through hard work and her strong commitment to chase her vivid dream, at age 17, Lamarr became a young, talented actress and first appeared in the film “Geld auf der straße” (Money On The Road). At that time, her career in the film industries gave her a strong, significant presence in the Czechoslovakian and German film industries. In addition, in 1933, she was in the German film “Ecstasy,” which brought her to the attention of Hollywood producers. Later on, Lamarr was offered a contract and became a star of the media company MGM, Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer.

Before becoming a shining, talented star, Lamarr experienced a lot of rough life moments. In 1933, she married a man, Friedrich Mandl, a wealthy Austrian. He was a controlling man who prevented her from pursuing her dream and acting career. Lamarr decided to escape from her husband for Paris, France. It was here in Paris that she started to blossom in her career and continued her acting in many entertainment venues until reaching Hollywood.

By the 1940s, she had acted in 18 Hollywood movies. At that time, many people did not appreciate and admire her talented acting skills; they mostly emphasized her beauty. As Lamarr got older, her acting career started to wither, and by the 1950s, her presence in the film industry became extremely limited. In spite of her career’s eventual decline, Lamarr contributed some timeless quotes to inspire women and others, such as the following:

  1. “Any girl can be glamorous. All you have to do is stand still and look stupid.”
  2. “A good painting to me has always been like a friend. It keeps me company, comforts and inspires.”
  3. “Hope and curiosity about the future seemed better than guarantees. The unknown was always so attractive to me…and still is.”

Spread Spectrum Technology

Besides her career in acting and filming, Hedy Lamarr was also a talented inventor. She was the first female inventor to discover Spread Spectrum Technology. It all started in the early 1940s when Lamarr and her partner, George Antheil, tried to develop the “Secret Communications System.” It is a patented device that manipulates radio frequencies at irregular intervals during reception or transmission. This means that this invention could form an unbreakable code that could effectively stop the transmission of information and messages by enemy spies.

Lamarr and Antheil invented this technology for a couple of reasons. First of all, she had personal reasons against the war, and she tried to work relentlessly to build this new invention for the Allies to win the war against the Nazis during World War II. Second of all, when she first married Mandl, he was actually selling munitions to Hitler. And finally, Lamarr was been severely degraded by her husband, who had insisted she did not have the abilities or capability to succeed in his field. In addition to inspiring her inventions, these were the reasons that had caused Lamarr to leave her husband and pursue her career in the first place.

Subsequently, Lamarr and Antheil came together to create and develop this invention. They were both authorized to develop their invention by the American government in 1941, but it did not attract the attention of greater audiences until ten years later. However, Spread Spectrum Technology was eventually implemented on naval ships during the Cuban Missile Crisis; and in fact, it continued to emerge in numerous military applications thereafter. In particular, this technology improved communication based on radio frequencies by changing at irregular periods that were synchronized (operated at same time and rate) between the transmitter and receiver. This technology could maintain the security of the messages that were being sent and prevented any hackers from transmitting them.

Spread Spectrum Technology becomes the main factor in the development of present and future wireless communication systems, including cellular phones, fax machines, and other wireless operations. Simultaneously, it is currently utilized in wireless “LAN,” Local Area Network, which is used in barcode scanners, palmtop computers, radio modern devices for warehousing, digital dispatch, digital cellular phone communication, computer data, city, state, or country networks for passing taxes, and email or multi-media data. This technology was also the main contributor to the invention of WiFi and the internet, which are really beneficial to today’s world population.

Before/After Death

In 1997, Lamarr and her partner received and were honored by the Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF) Pioneer Award. Later on, she became the first female recipient of the BUBBLE Gnass Spirit of Achievement Award. Hedy Lamarr died in the year 2000. Besides all of her inventing accomplishments, she was also the face for millions of women. But Lamarr was not just a pretty face – she helped shatter stereotypes of what a woman could be and earned her place among the 20th century’s most important women inventors.

Works Cited

America’s Inventor[Tm] Online: Profile, inventionconvention.com/americasinventor/dec97issue/section2.html.

“Biography.” IMDb, IMDb.com, www.imdb.com/name/nm0001443/bio.

“Hedy Lamarr.” Hedy Lamarr – Engineering and Technology History Wiki, ethw.org/Hedy_Lamarr.

“Home.” Famous Scientists, www.famousscientists.org/hedy-lamarr/.

“Lemelson-MIT Program.” Hedy Lamarr | Lemelson-MIT Program, lemelson.mit.edu/resources/hedy-lamarr.

“Who Is Hedy Lamarr? Everything You Need to Know.” Childhood, Life Achievements & Timeline, www.thefamouspeople.com/profiles/hedy-lamarr-6139.php.

Camkids Survey – Kampong Speu

On March 04th, I volunteered to be a part of the surveying exploration members for the trip to Kampong Speu. The exploration’s main focus is to conduct a survey which consequently not creating any bias answers while asking the questions. The whole survey was about education, loans, and healthcare.  We were interviewing the villagers in one main village and the other two adjacent villages. The organization of the survey and the division of our team into each family were clear. For the whole day, I interviewed seven villagers and each interview took from 45 minutes to an hour. It was a hot and sunny day, but at the end of the day, the team managed to receive a sample size of 105 people. By volunteering to join the team and surveying the people, it was a worthy decision. I have learned a lot of from the villagers’ lives and their plights. In addition, I experienced how the survey exploration members were working with the conduction of each question in the survey. It is a difficult job of creating questions because, in Cambodian society, it is extremely important as young and bright Cambodians not to ask questions to elders that are deemed as disrespectful and sensitive. Overall, I think it was an incredible experience even though we were walking under a hot sun. 

ICANMUN, the Great Start

I have been joining the Modeling United Nations for two events in Cambodia and Vietnam. Being a delegate to the conference was already an exceptional experience for me. I was able to improve my English speaking skill, debating skill, and a better researcher. This 2018, I received another opportunity of participating the conference once again at the ICAN International School that is located in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. There was a free spot for students to sign up as the head chair.  A head chair is a person who initiates debates in each specific committee. Successfully, I got accepted as the head chair in Junior General Assembly 3.

It is not an easy job to be a head chair; in fact, it requires a lot of works and effort from the person. You have to be an expert on the topics that will be debated on in the committee. In addition, knowing the exact answers to the questions that raise up by the delegates will be required from the head chair. My experience as the head chair is really remarkable, but simultaneously, I felt tiresome.

Before the event arrival, I had to create a chair report on the topic. In my committee, I had two specific topics talking the protection of endangered species and the protection of indigenous peoples’ rights. They were my most favorite topics since it matched with my passions, which are the environment and human rights. Writing the chair report was really challenging because I had to do a research as other delegates, gathering all the information, understanding the topics expressly, and finding all the information for the topic that is United Nations-related. Last, I had to ensure that the report is comprehensible by editing with the facilitator. If you want to read my chair report please click on this link: https://icanmun.weebly.com/uploads/4/8/5/5/48552847/chair_report__1_.pdf

On the event day, I was happy, excited, and nervous; it was my first time serving all the delegates in General Assembly 3 as the head chair. Also, I could never do all of these works without my deputy chair who is from ICAN. Chairing the debates was also challenging, but it was really fun and enjoying at the same time. I had to remember all the chairing script and debating process in order to assist the delegates who were having their first experience in the conference. There were some participants from Liger Leadership Academy, ICAN, and other local organization joining. It was also such an honor to confront their amazing debating skills and thoughtful discussion throughout the conference. Every delegate was trying their best to present the country’s position and all the thoughts from their states. In addition, it was a phenomenon of how much information they had been researching and brought it into the debates.

The last minute of the event, all of the students and teachers from distinguished were really enthusiastic and thankful for how amazing this event was. It teaches many students to become mainly a more confident person. I was also extremely proud of myself and students from Liger. They were trying hard to be confident and helpful to the other students. Last, I could never forget this experience; it means a lot me and it will continue my way up since ICANMUN is the “Great Start” for me.


Journeys of Change _ Updates!

Have you forgotten Journeys of Change? I bet you are not because I have some updates! Currently, we have a total of 23 students (Seniors) who are interested to become a tour guide. This means that those 23 students have to go through a seven-week expertise course by becoming trainees. In order to become a certified tour guide, they have to cover up all the provided courses: Liger Tour Guide Handbook, Mission, Responsible Tourism, Emergencies, Customer Service, and Tour Script, go to a professional bike tour in Phnom Penh, test with a business manager, and go to two of Journeys of Change tours by becoming assistant guides.

This may seem to be a difficult journey for the 23 people, but so far, we already have a new certified tour guide, Rika. It is also seemed to be a long journey to certify all the trainees, but we are on our way.

Our first Journeys of Change tour was when the press team came to our school in November. We gave a tour of many famous journalists and reports. There were people from Good Morning America! It was not an official tour yet. We were giving the tour to them as a welcoming to our school. It was actually an honor for all the tour guides. Surprisingly, Ron Claiborne, a Good Morning America journalist, talked about Journeys of Change on the show! Overall, it was amazing.

Ron Claiborne was on the tour! [at the back]
Then, on December 2, 2017, Journeys of Change launched a soft launch. At this time, we were taking the money from the clients, it was half of the price since it was a soft launch. Unexpectedly, one of our clients is a college counselor. It was a great time to network with her. As the result, we were able to get the support from her with SAT preparation and college informational sessions. It is all turning out now that Journeys of Change actually gets us in touch with many incredible people. Not to mention, it actually help us with our education.

Are you waiting for the official launch? We just launched our first official tour on January 13, 2018! It was phenomenal and it felt really good to have our first tour with full payment. Now, tour guides are able to make some profit to support their further education. Again, we met amazing people; there were people from U.S Embassy and SHE CAN.

Last updates from Journey of Change is that we are having many platforms to advertise the business now. We currently have our facebook page and Tripadvisor! If you are interested in going to our tour, you can book through our Facebook page and later on, you can give us a review through Tripadvisor and Facebook page. I hope you our tour, the Cambodian Insights: Past and Future.

  1. Facebook: https://web.facebook.com/BikeTourExperience/
  2. Tripadvisor: https://www.tripadvisor.com/Attraction_Review-g293940-d13449622-Reviews-Journeys_of_Change-Phnom_Penh.html


First Trip of 2018 – Feb 1st – 4th

Our diving instructor, Manu.

We could not go to the island in January just because of bad weather over there. So, this would be the first trip of 2018. To be honest, we did not dive that much since the water visibility was really unacceptable. We could not see anything far from one meter at all. For the whole, I did only one dive. However, we actually got introduced to our new diving instructor for is trip. His name is Manu. He is a friendly and kind man. It was a spectacular experience to dive with him. Even though the water visibility was bad, he managed to distract us with other activities understand. He taught us how to make a ring bubble underwater with our hands and navigate on land with blind eyes by covering up with the blanket. Overall, these are the only updates for our diving.

Me, after the first dive.


It was sad and really hard to watch on the day we arrived at the island. Along the seashore, there were rows of thick and filthy water hyacinth and rubbish floating from the ocean and possibly Vietnam. At the first thought, we did not know where is the origin of these water hyacinth. Then, we heard that at Vietnam, people were doing their river clean up and they were starting to throw away into the ocean. So you can pretty much guess our whole trip likes which were cleaning up all of those water hyacinth. Everybody was hard-working and optimistically trying to finish everything. The water hyacinth and rubbish were smelly and tangled. But of all, we did had a lot of joy while doing it since we found some weird stuff that we can joke about.

Us and others cleaned up the water hyacinth.
A long row of water hyacinth.

Sadly, this was the last trip for our lovely facilitator or LMRT leader, Karen. She is now our school counselor, and she will be leaving Liger and working from America to find scholarships, opportunities, and networking other colleges for us. We are all happy for her, but we promise that we will keep her in touch with our amazing, LMRT accomplishment.       

watching life under the microscope – Lux


A Human or A Robot?

A Human Being or A Robot?

By…”Venghour Than”

You are not alone. Be who you are. Inspire people with your great single story. Most importantly, love and believe in your own skin. I am talking to all of you; but specifically, to those of you who are effeminate.

“Be a real boy,” my father has said to me almost my entire life. “You have to be bold, educated, and able to support your family.”

What does it mean to be a “real boy?” Does “real” even mean anything? Is there such a thing as a “fake boy?” And how is he different from a “real boy?” Many societies all around the world believe that “feminine” boys go against the norms of society, especially with regards to expectations of physical strength and emotional resilience.

These criticisms scar effeminate young men; without support, love, and recognition from their families and communities, effeminate boys and men can lead complicated lives of struggle and depression. Cambodian society has not yet fully accepted this concept and still reinforces the notion that boys and men must be muscular, not caring much about appearance, and emotionally apathetic. What the Cambodian public may not realize, however, is that effeminate men may also be brave and effeminate, strong and effeminate.

I am a feminine Khmer boy. Living within my country’s society is quite challenging. There are people who are providing me support and encouragement, but there are also people who always contradict me verbally. Potential bullying could be the main consequence if someone realizes that I am feminine. “Also, [being feminine] may lead to many depression and suicides,” stated Makara Poy, a student at Liger Leadership Academy in Phnom Penh.

Every year, close to 800,000 people (1 person every 40 seconds) die by committing suicide. It is the second leading cause of death in the world. In fact, “in just about every country, men commit suicide more frequently than women, which is intriguing, since women typically have higher (at least, reported) rates of mental health disorders like depression,” according to “Why Are Men At Such High Risk” in Forbes magazine.

Why is this happening?

“It has to do with the society,” Makara said. Societal histories establish many modern-day perspectives and expectations that indoctrinate people’s minds to accept what is considered “normal” and what is “abnormal.” Most societies around the world, including Cambodian, believe in a ‘patriarchal’ ideology, wherein boys and men are expected to display themselves as externally and internally masculine.

Makara added that society also influences the family. Families learn effeminate behavior is “wrong,” and therefore boys and men struggle with to uphold these unrealistic expectations of masculinity when they are effeminate.

“I think it is a lot harder for a man or boy to be more feminine than it is for a woman or girl to be masculine,” stated Caroline Bell, Lead Learning Facilitator at Liger Leadership Academy. “I also think there is a lot of blending between masculine and feminine.”

Effeminate boys and men are limited and pressured to live their lives within the society and family. “[Boys and men are] not supposed to show other feelings, like vulnerability”, said Tony Porter, co-founder of A Call to Men, an education and advocacy group. In other words, they can’t express their feelings, emotions, and identities because in doing so they will expose their inner selves to harsh judgment from society. As expressed in a gender equity class at Liger Leadership Academy, people see these weaknesses in the form of:

  1. Emotional expression, mainly crying
  2. Being inactive
  3. Fashion (apparel, beauty, etc.)
  4. Participating in some certain type of activities (dancing, beauty care, etc.)
  5. Not being masculine

Aside from all of these negative pressures, effeminate boys and men are often supported and befriended by girls and women. Makara stated, “[To be honest,] I used to have friends in my government school who were effeminate and I liked to play with them. I didn’t actually discriminate; I felt more open with them because they understood more about girls.” According to the article “How to Raise a Feminist Son” in the New York Times, “Children who are encouraged to play with friends of the opposite sex learn better problem-solving and communication.” Furthermore, “Boys who have friendships with girls are also less likely to think of women as sexual conquests,” said Mr. Porter.

Personally, I feel more comfortable playing with female friends in my school. There is just this affectionate friendship between us. I observe that girls provide me with more kindness and love. But when I interact with some of the boys, it is sometimes difficult for me to communicate with them because they are so serious most of the time. It is neither their fault nor mine, but I am sure that, identifying as an effeminate boy, I prefer the company of girls.

But what do parents think of having an effeminate son?

“At first, I would be just fine with my kid experimenting with whatever they want, doing whatever they want, and being whoever they want,” said Ms. Bell. “[But,] it starts to get scary when your kid gets to school…you start to get worried about your kid being safe and not being bullied…but still, you have to be realistic with your kids.”

It is now 2018: women and girls are still dealing with many serious problems, but boys and men are also facing several challenges. Dealing with your surrounding environment, especially when it is influenced by strict societal norms, is really tough. You need to raise your voice and take some actions, for example, participating with the activists in your society, to prove to people that it is okay for boys and men to be effeminate.  

“I think that there have been a lot of people who have had struggles…if you are a boy and you are very feminine; you are just following the footsteps of other people who have had to fight for their rights.” Ms. Bell stated. “So, you should feel supported by that community and know that it is an unfortunate part of the process, but it is part of it and hopefully, you can be yourself.”

My last hopeful words to all those boys and men who identify as more effeminate are that you must not deny who you really are; remember that you are a human being not a programmed robot from your society.

And most of all, it is 100% okay to cry.


  1. https://www.forbes.com/sites/alicegwalton/2012/09/24/the-gender-inequality-of-suicide-why-are-men-at-such-high-risk/#6cfa83213ba8
  2. http://www.who.int/mental_health/prevention/suicide/suicideprevent/en/
  3. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/men/thinking-man/11747413/We-must-stop-indoctrinating-boys-in-feminist-ideology.html
  4. https://www.nytimes.com/2017/06/02/upshot/how-to-raise-a-feminist-son.html


My First Dancing Competition

          While waiting for the upcoming 2017 Christmas, Soliday and I submitted our dance one-minute dance video in a competition, called “Christmas Dance Challenge.” The rule of the competition was to choose a music or song to dance for one minute and it had to be Christmas theme. Soliday and I chose a song, called “Santa Claus Is Coming to Town (Trap Remix).” We were really happy with the chosen music, but we were having a hard to think of the choreography.

          Choreographing a dance is not easy as it looks. It requires your stamina and thinking. Poses, styles, personalities, techniques, and expressions are demanded in dancing. The music we chose was a little bit fast and full of beats. Therefore, we need to choreograph a dance that shows our strength, sassiness, and coolness. Our one minutes dance choreographing turned into one day. We did not expect that it was going to consume a lot of our time, effort, and determination. Simultaneously, it was fun and silly because we got to create any styles we wanted and saw the inspiration from other competitors who were also submitted in the competition.

         I really love and admire arts and I really do love dancing. It is something that has become a part of life. By participating in this dancing competition has changed my life with arts. It helps to boost up my competitiveness and effort to pursue my dream in this area. This was also my first time submitting to the dancing competition. It is inspired to learn and try hard to my limits. But most importantly, this competition makes my best memory of all time, especially working with my dancing partner.

          For sure next year, I will try to join this competition again. As a matter of fact, we did not qualified to the top 5 in this competition. As a promise, Soliday and I will join this event again by bringing new dancing moves. Dancing is a beautiful talent. I am proud of myself and my dancing partner to pursue this dream together. If you want to watch our dance video, here is the link: https://www.facebook.com/yon.soliday/videos/555183261481097/